Wiki: Detergents



Given the last two days, I think I've changed my mind.
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"Please try to understand, the one you call Messiah is a lie."
[email me at huge huge (dot) org <dot> uk]
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So how did you extract the excretion products finally? I'd be tempted to remove the water and volatiles by vacuum distillation, then an ether extraction on the condensed volatiles (which shouldn't contain any BBS). Having removed the water, the residue will still have BBS, but without the water, ether extraction should work.
Did you do chromatographic separation of the components afterwards?
Cheers,
Sid
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I didn't. Summer vacation finished & I went back to being an undergraduate, handing the carboy full of fermenter output and ether back to one of the "proper" research assistants.

That was the intent, yes.
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"Please try to understand, the one you call Messiah is a lie."
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Ahh. I see. I was hoping you'd reposte with a devilishly cunning way of doing it. I would guess at vacuum distillation + condensation of the volatiles. That would leave the BBS behind, and so you'd have an ether extraction of the volatiles ready made. The residue would be water-free, so I'd guess you could then run a standard extraction on it. Chromatographic isolation of the components, followed by photospectometry of each component and confirmation via mass spectrometry. I suspect these days it's all automated.
Cheers,
Sid

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I spent some months many years ago, trying to determine the

I often do that when there's nothing much on the telly.
mark
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On Wed, 21 Jan 2009 22:03:35 +0000, The Natural Philosopher wrote

The Greeks use olive oil soap a lot - it's available everywhere there. I don't suppose they use the best 'Extra Virgin' though - more likely chemically recovered stuff from already used pressings.
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Mike Lane
UK North Yorkshire
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Mike Lane wrote:

Thought that went to Lidl? (Or was that Aldi?) :-)
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Rod

Hypothyroidism is a seriously debilitating condition with an insidious
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Rod wrote:

Feeling mischievous are we? :-)
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Steve Firth wrote:

Any chance you would care to elaborate?
(that is rather the point of posting articles here for peer review prior to sticking them in the wiki).
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Cheers,

John.

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Yes, but I'm busy ATM.
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snipped-for-privacy@care2.com wrote:

Latest version, with more info on soaps & dishwasher blocks
Detergent
==Washing up liquid=Probably the fastest acting detergent, but one of the least powerful. Removes many types of dirt very quickly. Dries skin.
Washing up liquid can be used for urgent clothes washing, it can give a quick refresh wash in a few minutes. But it can't remove all types of dirt, and is not adequate for regular use.
Do not use washing liquid in washing machines, it creates a greasy film that makes the machine pong.
Don't use wasing liquid to clean carpets. It leaves a slightly sticky residue that attracts further dirt.
Washing liquid can be used as a lubricant for sash window runners and for driving stiff [[screws]].
Washing liquid can be wiped onto just dried oil-based [[paint]] to prevent sticking and allow prompt reassembly and smoooth running - and let you close the front door after painting!
Low cost washing liquids contain less detergent and are thickened with salt. Which is better value is such a trivial question that its seen long debates on [[Newsgroups|usenet]].
==Liquid soaps=More or less all products sold as liquid soaps are based on a detergent called sodium lauryl ethyl sulphate, aka sodium laureth sulphate or SLES, which isn't really a soap. They also have various additives (preservatives, colour, perfume, sometimes oil & emulsifier). SLES is a nearly universal low cost skin cleaning detergent, and a known very slight skin irritant. Nearly all brands of skin cleaner contain it, regardless of purported quality.
Such products are ill suited to general cleaning since some contain oils and fats, most are a relatively high price per litre, and they're somewhat mild cleaners.
There have also been safety concerns voiced over SLES products, convering its contmination with the toxic 1,4-dioxane. The significance of this is still debated. The related compound sodium lauryl sulphate, or SLS, is not so affected, but it is more irritant.
==Shampoos=Much the same constitutents as liquid soaps. Anti dandruff shampoos contain an antifungal, such as selenium sulphide. [[oil|Conditioners]] also contain [[oil]].
=over washing up liquid=* Based mostly on plant products. * Not as irritant to skin as sodim laureth sulphate * Can strip [[paint|emulsion]] if soaked * Non toxic. * Can be used as body wash and shampoo * Add a little [[oil]] to make a [[oil|conditioning shampoo]] or for dry skin
For people with skin irritated by washing powder its possible to use ecover washing up liquid to replace most of the wahsing powder when clothes washing. Use one tablespoonful of each per load, don't overdo it as it doesn't contain anti foaming agents, and use conventional powders for other washes to prevent muck buildup in the machine. If you misjudge the amount to use, the froth monster will come after you.
==Washing powder=Much more powerful than washing liquids, effective degreasing with hot water. Alkaline soaps with phosphates. Drying and somewhat irritant to skin.
Biological powders also contain enzymes to improve their cleaning action at 40C, but the enzymes stop working at higher temps. Washing powders also contain various additives such as oxygen bleach, blue dye to counter yellowing, powdered cardboard filler, alkali, and generally a huge array of stain removers.
An overnight soak with bio powder can remove a wide range of stains and organic materials, so is a good first line of treatment for unknown stains.
Biological washing powder is the ultimate cleaner in terms of its ability to digest a very wide range of dirt types. However to destroy them all takes days of soaking and warmth. This can (rarely) be worth doing for dirt that has resisted all other forms of attack.
==Washing powder tablets=These are just washing powder, but they take time to dissolve. This gives them less cleaning time per wash than powders.
If placed in the soap drawer they sometimes fail to dissolve in time, giving a poor wash, and the clothes are left with a residue of irritant washing powder due to being rinsed in weak detergent solution instead of clean water.
==Dishwasher detergent====Powder=* Strong alkali & detergent. * Require hot water to work effectively. * The most irritant detergent to skin, skin contact should be avoided. * The detergent gradually attacks some types of glass, making it go cloudy in time.
===Tablet==3 in 1 Tablets contain detergent, salt and rinse aid all in one block. The formulation attempts to time the release of these to coincide with the required stages of washing. This timing isn't accurate, but seems to be adequate for non-fussy users.
Although the blocks contain some salt, its release cant be timed effectively, and its not good practice to neglect filling the ion exchanger with salt.
5 in 1 tablets have added stain removers.
===Liquid==...use a different chemistry to powders.
==Wonder / miracle / magic cleaners / stain removers=A lot of these contain oxygen based laundry bleach. These often feature 'oxi' in the name.
Some are just ordinary laundry soap, or laundry soap & phosphates.
Small bottles of chemicals for removing specific stains are not detergents, and not covered here.
==Soap (bar)=Bar soaps and washing powder are real soaps, whereas the others here are more modern detergents. All soaps are made by reaction between a strong alkali and fats or oils, and unless the soap batches are carefully hand adjusted (which is not usual practice), the end result inevitably contains either excess fat or excess caustic alkali.
Soaps for skin cleaning are superfatted, meaning they contains some fat and very little free alkali. To some extent the fat counters soap's tendency to dry skin. The fat content makes bar soap unsuitable for household cleaning. Soaps also tend to leave scum and spots on baths & showers, more so than other detergents.
The various different types of bar soap are made from different fats, and have differing colour & perfume added. Clear soaps have some additional processing.
In poorer countries a wider variety of soaps are found, with bars for household cleaning, shampooing, laundry etc, but these are not so often seen in Britain. If you want to find them, look in Indian supermarkets. They're often sold in big bars a foot or so long, and you slice off a new soap bar when you need one. The colours indicate which type of soap it is. These are all based on soaps rather than more modern detergents. They make very economical cleaners, but are not widely available, not widely used, and more effective cleaning products are now popular.
Soaps may be used for cleaning gold and silver jewellery.
==Sugar soap=A soap that has nothing to do with sugar, and is definitely not edible.
Used primarily to clean [[paint]]work, as traces of this soap don't affect household paints much. Other detergents can be used instead if rinsed off.
Washing painted walls is sometimes sufficient to rejuvenate them and delay the need to re-[[paint]].
==See Also=* [[Special:Allpages|Wiki Contents]] * [[Special:Categories|Wiki Subject Categories]]
[[Category:Cleaning]]
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snipped-for-privacy@care2.com wrote:

Shouldn't that be 'washing-up liquid'?

Shouldn't that be 'washing-up liquid'?
Any reason for switching from 'Do not' to 'Don't'? Might be boring, but I think sticking to one reads and looks better.

Shouldn't that be 'washing-up liquid'?

Shouldn't that be 'washing-up liquid'?

Shouldn't that be 'washing-up liquid'? Shouldn't that be 'it's'? Or, even better, 'it has'?

Wouldn't it be better to move this next to 'Washing-up liquid'?
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Rod

Hypothyroidism is a seriously debilitating condition with an insidious
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Main reason I noticed the washing liquid/washing-up liquid problem is partner. She puts 'washing liquid' on the shopping list and I come back with Fairy washing-up liquid. Time and again!
--
Rod

Hypothyroidism is a seriously debilitating condition with an insidious
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On 20 Jan, 15:59, snipped-for-privacy@care2.com wrote:

A lot of these contain chemicals that produce hydrogen peroxide when used. These often feature 'oxi' in the name. The actual chemical used is often sodium perborate, which is normally mixed with an activator (tetraacetylethylenediamine) to make it effective at lower wash temperatures. Sodium percarbonate is another popular choice.
Regards,
Sid
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On Wed, 21 Jan 2009 02:57:36 -0800 (PST), snipped-for-privacy@mail.com wrote:
-------------------8><

Partially the progenitor of the brand name "Persil" (actually from perborate and silicate), I was once told.
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snipped-for-privacy@mail.com wrote:

thanks, I've slotted that in.
NT
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