Can you teach me more about lug bolts & related tire tools?

Can you teach me more about lug bolts & related tire tools on this vehicle whose tires I rotated today and which I plan on rotating every 4K miles (6K km).
First question is what is the practical difference between these three 21mm (13/16ths) "sockets" for the lug bolts on the car I was working on today?
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/socket_ends.jpg
1. The standard lug wrench (green) has 6 points, each at a sharp angle. 2. The impact socket (black) has 6 points, each at a semicircular angle. 3. The standard socket (chrome) has 12 points, each at a sharp angle.
Second question, are these "cut marks" on a lug nut normal?
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/dented_nuts.jpg
I always use deep sockets, which fit over the whole nut, so I know I didn't make these marks - but what did make the marks? Are they factory original? If so, why?
Third question is related to this combination picture:
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/torquewrench.jpg
Where this question is a combination question of: a. Why is the green 21mm "lug wrench" so very short compared to all others? b. What's the practical difference, if any, with respect to torquing lug bolts to 85 foot pounds (115 N-m), between the two types of torque wrenches shown? c. Does anyone even use that bottom-most "auger style" ratchet bar for fast removal anymore? (I don't have power bolt-removal tools so that's why I use it.) And, the most important question, for torquing lug nuts, is d. Does the torque change depending on the length of the socket extension bar?
Fourth question is more of an observation than a question, where I combed the tires for rocks and nails, as I always do when I rotate the tires every 4K miles, when I saw this tiny little steel dot embedded in the rubber in each of the front tires.
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/splinter1.jpg
That tiny dot turned out to be this funny-shaped steel sliver, pointy side was pointing into the tire in both front tires.
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/splinter2.jpg
The question is whether these embedded rocks and splinters, of which I always find between 50 and 100 in each tire (mostly tiny pebbles and bits of glass stuck in the tiny sipes of the tire tread) would eventually fall out as the rubber wears (negating the need to periodically pick them out at each tire rotation)?
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/splinter3.jpg
In summary, I ask these basic questions simply to learn more about how to better rotate tires every 4K miles (6.5K km).
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On Sat, 17 Feb 2018 16:48:03 -0800, ultred ragnusen

The impact socket is superior for that application - whether using an impact driver or not. A 12 point socket is better in situations where fine motion is required.

Yes, they are there from the factory.

To make it fit in the jack bag

The Micrometer adjusting "click" is easier to use.

A "speed handle" is very handy for spinning nuts on and off after breaking them loose and before torquing. I still use mine a lot. - not just for wheel nuts,

No.

Looks like a small staple.

You are best to rotate only front to back on MOST vehicles -and MUST do so with "directional" tires.
In over 40 years Ihave NEVER done side to side rotations. (and I'm a mechanic)
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On 2/17/2018 8:43 PM, Clare Snyder wrote:

I knowof people that have done side to side on car with different size front and back, but it seems about useless.
I also rotate with oil changes at 7500. IMO, 4000 is a bit too soon but if you have the time and engergy . . .
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On 18/02/2018 01:43, Clare Snyder wrote:

Why? Not all nuts have this mark, and in the UK nuts with this mark are generally used for hoses that contain inflammable gases.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
wrote:

I also wonder why the cuts are there, all at the same depth on the nut.
A friend I just spoke to says his car has them too, so, they're pretty common.
If they're made at the factory, why?
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On 18/02/2018 17:11, ultred ragnusen wrote:

possibly because they locate in the tool that puts on all the wheel nuts at the same time.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On 18/02/2018 17:49, MrCheerful wrote:

OK - like a circlip type clip to retain the nut in the tool?
That would make sense.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
wrote:

This is good to know that the impact socket is superior, probably for two reasons, right? 1. It has those radius corners (someone said it reduces stress on both the nuts and the socket itself). 2. It is stronger overall (presumably)
Since there is always a drawback, I think the drawback might be: 3. They're "fatter" it seems, than my normal sockets 4. They don't seem to come in 12-point sizes (at least mine aren't)
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On 18/02/2018 17:00, ultred ragnusen wrote:

I use single hex impact sockets for 99.9 percent of jobs, there are practically speaking no occasions when they are too fat to get somewhere. (better makes are thinner sided than cheap ones)
Unless you have 12 sided nuts/bolts, then you do not need 12 sided sockets (there are some odd cars/equipment which use 12 sided hardware)
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
In alt.home.repair, on Sun, 18 Feb 2018 17:42:55 +0000, MrCheerful

I think the only time I ever saw that was on the fuel pump bolts on a '67 Pontiac. I wondered why there of all places.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On 18-Feb-18 5:42 PM, MrCheerful wrote:

Garrett turbocharger compressor nuts are bi-hex (and cack handed). I had to special order a 8mm bi-hex 1/4 drive socket as it's not a stock item. You won't find bi-hex 1/4 drive sockets even in "pro" socket sets.
All nuts/bolts used by a Derby based jet engine maker are bi-hex flange nuts/bolts. They are much lighter (and unbelievably expensive when made from aero grade nickel alloy) as the bi-hex size is at least a size smaller - there are 12 points to drive it so it's stronger.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On Sun, 18 Feb 2018 09:00:02 -0800, ultred ragnusen

That's because 12 point sockets are not the best to use on an impact - as discussed previously.
And yes, they ARE fatter - because they REALLY need to be.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On 19/02/2018 4:00 AM, ultred ragnusen wrote:

Cracks are more likely to start at a *corner*. That's why crankpins on a crankshaft have a radius at the fillet. The radius also keeps the impact forces back away from the very tip of the hex point.

It is thicker and made of a stronger material.

They are stronger because they need to be in order to resist the *impact* forces.

A hex socket is much less likely to round off a nut.
--

Xeno

Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload

I never rotate any tyres What's the point? When one wears out I replace it.
--
The planet Neptune has barely completed one orbit since it was discovered in 1846.
Pluto hasn't completed a full orbit since its discovery, and won't until March 23, 2178.
  Click to see the full signature.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On Sun, 18 Feb 2018 20:26:41 +0000, MrCheerful wrote:

Last time I was in the States, over a dozen years ago even, I was *so* disappointed not to see any of the great classic gas-guzzlers on the roads. Everyone seemed to be driving small Jap cars and it's probably even worse today with these stupid little Prius things that douchebags like Brian Griffin drives.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
wrote:

You still see them on the road on sunny summer weekends and evenings when the rich boys get to play with their toys.
Can't afford to drive them as daily drivers and risk damaging them. I was also dissapointed when traveling in Europe 10 or 15 years ago to not see a single Mk1 Mini, early Beetle - or even VW1500 Variants, or Bay window busses - no R4 or even R5 Renaults. No 128 Fiats, no A35s. No Devons or Cambridges. No R12 or R16s. No Peugot 404, 304, etc. I saw ONE 204 wagon rusting away in a side-yard on Madiera and a Robin somewhere in the Canary Islands.
The only thing over 20 years old in NMorrocco were the ancient French trucks
You want to see old American Iron in daily use go to Cuba.
That beautifull 55 Chevy may very well have a 1.5 liter Lada diesel in it - or an old Mercedes but it still LOOKS like American Iron.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On 2/17/18 6:48 PM, ultred ragnusen wrote:

Four thousand miles? Why so often? Is that what the owner's manual recommends?
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
wrote:

There is no doubt that 4K miles is the correct number because the alignment is correct and the front tires get a palpable feathering on the outside edges after about 4K miles.
It's been reliable, as this is the fourth rotation of these tires, and the same thing happens every single time, where I've actually been doing it not by mileage but by the feeling of the tires - but when I write down the miles, it's just about every 4K miles.
The roads are very windy for miles at below 20 mph and very steep.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On Sat, 17 Feb 2018 16:48:03 -0800, ultred ragnusen

Only use 6 point sockets on lug nuts, breaker bar or impact. They are never really that precise, they tend to have rounder corners and they are softer than most nuts. I have had to remove enough rounded off lug nuts to know that.

They are on a lot of lug nuts, right out of the box. I am not sure why.

To fit in the hole they store the tools in.

The clicker is easier to use, the bar style may actually be more accurate if the clicker was not calibrated recently.

It works but it is just one more tool. You can usually spin them off with your fingers.

No.

I am not sure what that is but strange stuff lands in the road and ends up in tires. Some times it will work itself out, other times it goes in deeper.

I only rotate tires when I replace 2.
Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload
On Saturday, February 17, 2018 at 10:50:04 PM UTC-5, snipped-for-privacy@aol.com wrote:

Not clear what he means by socket extension bar. If he means a socket extension that goes into the socket which a breaker bar then goes to, I agree, the answer is no. But if he means a different length breaker bar, the answer obviously is yes.

Add pictures here
<% if( /^image/.test(type) ){ %>
<% } %>
<%-name%>
Add image file
Upload

HomeOwnersHub.com is a website for homeowners and building and maintenance pros. It is not affiliated with any of the manufacturers or service providers discussed here. All logos and trade names are the property of their respective owners.