Fructose and Sucrose

<http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid 381015>
"Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans"
Abstract and whole study at above URL.
Bill
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which is yet another good reason not to fill a baby/toddler up with apple juice... and most "juice drinks" aimed at parents as "healthy" are nothing but empty calories, consisting of mostly apple juice (fructose) lee
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enigma wrote:

Did not read whole article but should apply also to sucrose, regular table sugar, as it is a dissacharide of fructose and glucose.
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HIGH FRUCTOSE corn syrup has been the cheap sweetener of choice in processed foods for decades. Soft drink makers may be backing away from it now, but the damage has already been done.
Also see: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/magazine/22wwlnlede.t.html?pagewanted=1 &eiP90&en328c69f0b3f4be&ex34894400&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss "Drewnowski gave himself a hypothetical dollar to spend, using it to purchase as many calories as he possibly could. He discovered that he could buy the most calories per dollar in the middle aisles of the supermarket, among the towering canyons of processed food and soft drink. (In the typical American supermarket, the fresh foods dairy, meat, fish and produce line the perimeter walls, while the imperishable packaged goods dominate the center.) Drewnowski found that a dollar could buy 1,200 calories of cookies or potato chips but only 250 calories of carrots. Looking for something to wash down those chips, he discovered that his dollar bought 875 calories of soda but only 170 calories of orange juice.
As a rule, processed foods are more energy dense than fresh foods: they contain less water and fiber but more added fat and sugar, which makes them both less filling and more fattening. These particular calories also happen to be the least healthful ones in the marketplace, which is why we call the foods that contain them junk. Drewnowski concluded that the rules of the food game in America are organized in such a way that if you are eating on a budget, the most rational economic strategy is to eat badly and get fat." ------
Inside a human cell, there is a proof reader protein called a spliceosome. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spliceosome When the cell sees a protein from another species, it can think that it is a mistake, take it apart and rearrange it, accidentally making a protein that normally didn't previously exist in nature. Is this protein structural? part of an enzyme? good questions with no answers that I'm aware of.
Part of the assembly of a gene for insertion is an "enabler" to ensure that the gene expresses itself doesn't get turned off. One such "enabler" is the Cabbage Mosaic Virus (CaMV). About 98% of the DNA in our chromosomes has no obvious reason for being there. DNA that is no longer needed, and dormant viruses. Turns out, these CaMVs can separate from the inserted gene and go roaming around. They should be able to turn on latent DNA, that does god knows what, or they could turn on a latent virus. Remember, the CaMV is there to insure that the gene doesn't get turned off.
GMOs haven't anything to do with obesity, or type II diabetes, you say? Maybe so, but for the foreseeable future, I'm eating organic. --
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Billy wrote:

Now I have to look it up. I believe normal corn syrup is glucose but they isomerize part to high fructose. A postscript in Chemical and Engineering News was complaining about it. I'll see if I can find it.
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This is article. Actually high fructose syrup is not that different from sucrose which I would assume under the acidic soda conditions would invert to the 50/50 mixture of fructose and glucose. Brings back old memories as one summer I worked in a control lab at ICI in plant that made sorbitol and mannitol which are the hydrogenated products of glucose and sucrose. Sorbitol and mannitol are dietetic type sweetners but consuming to much has laxative action.
Pepsi Sweetening it old school: Pepsi and Mountain Dew Throwback.
Recently, I wrote a C&EN News of the Week article about Coca-Cola's plans to substitute petrochemically derived ethylene glycol with glycol made from sugar and molasses to make polyethylene terephthalate beverage bottles (C&EN, May 25, page 9). Researching the story made me wish that Coca-Cola could put sugar to better use, namely, making soda.
For soda lovers like me, the past 30 years have been unkind in one respect: High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sugar in nearly all beverages in the U.S.
The TWO SWEETENERS are chemically different. Common sugar is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture made of glucose and fructose55% fructose in HFCS-55, the type of syrup used in beverages. To make HFCS, corn refiners use the enzyme glucoamylase to break cornstarch down into glucose and then use the enzyme glucose isomerase to convert some of the glucose into fructose.
HFCS was introduced in the late 1960s, and by the 1980s, it had conquered the U.S. beverage industry. In 1982, the U.S. government imposed quotas that limit sugar imports. Since then, U.S. sugar prices have generally been much higher than global sugar prices. And HFCS-55 has been cheaper on a comparable basisit contains about 23% waterthan sugar in the U.S. Recently, however, the margin between the two has narrowed.
Because of the price differential, and because it's easier to handle a liquid than a solid on an industrial scale, use of HFCS in soft drinks and processed food skyrocketed in the 1980s. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, per capita annual consumption of sugar was 84 lb in 1980. By 1990, it was 64 lb. During the same period, per capita annual consumption of HFCS increased from 19 lb to 50 lb.
Today, finding soda made with sugar in the U.S. is as difficult as it was to procure Levi's dungarees in the Soviet Union. That's an exaggeration, but one does have to know where to look. One source is Coca-Cola made in Mexico, typically available for sale at any grocer that displays a Mexican flag prominently in the window. Another source, kosher Coca-Cola, can be found in many supermarkets around Passover because corn is shunned during that holiday.
There are other sugar-based sodas as well. One Dr Pepper bottler in Dublin, Texas, still uses sugar. People can buy "Dublin Dr Pepper" over the Internet or stumble across it at, say, a truck stop along a Texas highway. There are also gourmet brands such as Jones Soda or Royal Crown Draft that use pure cane sugar.
This past spring, Pepsi made life easier for soda aficionados. It released Pepsi and Mountain Dew Throwback brands made with real sugar, which was available from April to June.
One wonders about Pepsi's motives. Some nutritionists say HFCS is a worse contributor to obesity than sugar is, so there could be some marketing benefit.
Whatever the company's motivation, its efforts offered a rare opportunity to settle the matter of which tastes better, soda made with sugar or with HFCS.
I arranged a Pepsi Challengenormal Pepsi versus Pepsi Throwbackat C&EN's Northeast News Bureau. Admittedly, I had a very small statistical sample for the blind taste test: three subjects, including my biased self. All agreed that regular Pepsi made an immediate impact on the tip of the tongue, whereas the subtler effects of Pepsi Throwback worked toward the back of the mouth. One subject liked regular Pepsi better, noting that Throwback "tastes like diet." The two others, including me, preferred sugar.
Alexander H. Tullo wrote this week's column. Please send comments and suggestions to snipped-for-privacy@acs.org.
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Trouble with logic is that it always hinges on its premise that may, or may not be correct. http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/532433/#imagetop Soda Warning? New Study Supports Link Between Diabetes, High-fructose Corn Syrup
So it appears that the Journal of Nutrition is battling it out with PubMed over the toxicity of HFCS (IIRC nutritionists are paid well by large companies like Kelloge, ConAgra, Nestl, Cargill, Kraft, Pepsico, and General Mills to tout their products).
That just leaves us with, Dicarbonyls attacking the mitochondria http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid &39773 and the GMO enabler, Cabbage Mosaic Virus (CaMV).
Think I'll just try and stick with stevia.
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Got me thinking about how many folks know of bitter melon. Bitter seems to be lacking in our foods and wondered if we had it then perhaps our sweet could be countered will simple sweets. I remember being enamored with sucking on common honey suckle as a youth.
Bill
<http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en-us&q=bitter+mellon+ben efit&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8>
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Billy wrote:

Had never heard of it but brief google shows it has detractors too. Of interest to all those that profess "organic", all these sweeteners are natural products ;)
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Yeah, Monsanto, who owns Nutrasweet. Stevia has been used for a millenia in South America with no problems. Presently, Japan and Germany use it.

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Billy wrote:

Reminds me of one of my favorite stories when I was working. Eating at company cafeteria in US, only artificial sweetner available at the time was Sweet & Low with saccharine. At company cafeteria in Canada, all that was available was Sweet & Low with cyclamate. But, at company cafeteria in Switzerland, the Sweet & Low contained both saccharine and cyclamate. US considered cyclamate carcinogenic while Canada considered saccharine carcinogenic and Switzerland was not concerned about either.
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http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/704432 ENDO 2009: Use of Artificial Sweeteners Linked to 2-Fold Increase in Diabetes
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I'm old fashioned and think soda pop is a real treat. BUT noticed it became a stable in my refrigerator over time. Coke junk too. Still have 2 12 oz bottles of Black Cherry Wisanick (Sp) hidden.
Bill thinking the remedy is worst than the illness. Corn...Sugar...
................... From Medscape Medical News ENDO 2009: Use of Artificial Sweeteners Linked to 2-Fold Increase in Diabetes Crina Frincu-Mallos, PhD Authors and Disclosures Print This Email this
INFORMATION FROM INDUSTRY Diabetes in America: This important 4-part series addresses four critical aspects of type 2 diabetes: beta-cell function, the impact of incretins on glucose regulation, current research findings on incretins that may have implications for diabetes care, and formulary care access Start Diabetes in America June 15, 2009 (Washington, DC) People who use artificial sweeteners are heavier, more likely to have diabetes, and more likely to be insulin-resistant compared with nonusers, according to data presented here during ENDO 2009, the 91st annual meeting of The Endocrine Society. Results show an inverse association between obesity and diabetes, on one side, and daily total caloric, carbohydrate, and fat intake, on the other side, when comparing artificial sweetener users and control subjects. First author Kristofer S. Gravenstein, a postbaccalaureate researcher with the Clinical Research Branch at the National Institute of Aging (NIA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), said the association may reflect the increased use of artificial sweeteners by obese and/or diabetic study participants. "This is a cross-section study," Mr. Gravenstein told Medscape Diabetes & Endocrinology, "so there are limitations we cannot say that artificial sweetener use causes obesity, we can say it is associated with it." Increased Use vs Increased Glucose Absorption Artificial sweeteners activate sweet taste receptors in enteroendocrine cells, leading to the release of incretin, which is known to contribute to glucose absorption. Recent epidemiologic studies in Circulation (2008;117:754-761) and Obesity (2008;16:1894-1900) showed an association between diet soda consumption and the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This report tested whether participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), which began in 1958, differ in anthropometric measures, daily caloric intake, and glucose status, separating them into 3 different groups: artificial sweetener users, artificial sweetener nonusers, or controls. A total of 1257 participants, with a mean age of 64.8 years (range, 21 - 96 years), had data on self-reported 7-day dietary intake, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and anthropometric measures. The major artificial sweetener consumed was aspartame, preferred by 66% of BLSA participants, followed by saccharin (13%), sucralose (1.0%), and combinations of the three (21%). "In our study, we were actually able to isolate what type of sweetener was used at a certain point in time, as we used food diaries, and not food questionnaires," Mr. Gravenstein pointed out. "When we first did this analysis, we found that people ate more fat before 1983, which is the year [of] a big increase in artificial sweetener consumption in the American population it was actually when aspartame was approved and diet Coke was introduced," he explained. As a result, the study further analyzed data from a subset of participants, starting in 1983. Compared with 550 people who did not use artificial sweeteners, the 443 people who did were younger, heavier, and had a higher body mass index (BMI), yet they did not consume more calories from people who did not use artificial sweeteners. Fat, carbohydrate, protein, and total caloric intake were not different between the 2 groups (users vs nonusers). Furthermore, Mr. Gravenstein noted that people who used artificial sweeteners "were less likely to have a normal OGTT, or they were less likely to be diagnosed as having a normal glucose homeostasis." In terms of glucose status, the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG), the data show that artificial sweetener users "were not different than the prediabetics, ie, they had the same prevalence of prediabetes," he said, adding that "in our population, people who used artificial sweeteners were twice as likely to have diabetes, 8.8% compared to 4.4% for controls." Analyzing the data further, the investigators focused on a subpopulation, in which fasting insulin values were available from 374 nonusers and 311 artificial sweetener users. The users had a higher fasting glucose levels, higher fasting insulin levels, and a higher measure of insulin resistance, as measured by the homeostasis model assessment, but glycosylated hemoglobin A1C levels were similar between the 2 groups. Alternative Hypothesis and Clinicians' Role The researchers suggest an alternative hypothesis, that artificial sweeteners modulate the metabolic rate through enteroendocrine cells, therefore contributing to the development of diabetes and/or obesity. However, this hypothesis needs further testing in longitudinal analysis and intervention studies, said the investigators. "Also, it could be that artificial sweeteners are causing diabetes, or it could be that there is a higher use of them because a lot of physicians actually recommend people to use artificial sweeteners to prevent diabetes...." Mr. Gravenstein said. The researchers are planning to address this question with a prospective analysis. "This is a very interesting study," Rachel C. Edelen, MD, a pediatric endocrinology practitioner at the Aspen Centre in Rapid City, South Dakota, told Medscape Diabetes & Endocrinology in an interview. "I diet screen all my patients, and they are not drinking enough milk. Usually, they replace the milk with something else, sweetened tea, Gatorade, etc, not just water. With my type 1 diabetics, the information they were getting from the hospital was to drink diet pop. But who even goes into the hospital and drinks pop?" she wondered. Support for this study was provided by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Edelen and Mr. Gravenstein have disclosed no relevant financial relationships. ENDO 2009: The Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society: Abstract P2-478. Presented June 11, 2009.
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Billy wrote:

Not my point but I have no problem with artificial sweeteners, i.e. my blood sugar.
Use of such additives depends on the ruling authority, in the US, the FDA.
In the case of food additive, sucralose, which I don't like the looks of chemically, took over 20 years to get FDA approval.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucralose
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My point is that manufactured foods should be scrutinized for a long time before they enter the food chain. We are 20 - 50 years into artificail sweeteners, and just now we find out that thy are bad for you? HFCS seems so innocuous, yet it is having health effects. How long before we find out the impact of manufactured food additives, and GMOs?
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There is no precedents with longevity. Faith in science versus experience with life seem to be in conflict and money will control to the last gasp. So protect your own and when you see good encourage.
Difficult times yet easy to do good.
Bill
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How touching is the angst articulated by the drinkers of Coke and Pepsi as they debate sweeteners vs. sugar.
They all taste like medicine to me. I just drink water or Chinese green tea* with my meals, unless you are buying and offering good wine or beer. Drinking flavored sugar water with meals is sacreligious (sp?) How can you taste the food? Same with smoking at meals.
*BIG difference between green tea from my Chinatown store that sells the real thing loose, by weight, and the yeeech sold in supermarkets. The good stuff is expensive, but you only use a few leaves per brew, so $50 worth can last months.
Persephone
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LA DEE DA. Got money and cheap too, hmmm, hmmm, hmm.
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Bill who putters;855823 Wrote:

Hi, another good reason not to fill a baby/toddler up with apple juice... and most "juice drinks" aimed at parents as "healthy" are nothing but empty calories. He discovered that he could buy the most calories per dollar in the middle aisles of the supermarket, among the towering canyons of processed food and soft drink.
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