# electrical advice wanted--110 vs 220

Good Morning,
I am in the happy position of planning an electrical upgrade to my shop. (And boy, does it need it!)
For the first time I will have 220v available.
My lathe, jointer and table saw motors can be easily rewired to 220v from 110v. Is there any advantage to me to do so?
Old Guy
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This question has been asked for many years. The "power" is the same in both cases. The formula is P(ower) = E(voltage) times I(current) .So, 220 * 5 is the same as 110 * 10. OK, now comes the part that makes the difference. It is resistive loss in the wire. The more current you "draw" through a piece the higher the loss (heat) there is in the wire. So, using 220 (@ 5amps) will have less voltage loss to the tool. Therefore better efficiency, and the tool tends to start better (like a table saw). With that stated, I would use 220 for power tools if you can. BTW if the run (power line) is short, there might not be a big difference.
Just my \$0.02 Frank

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If you are going to install a new electrical service to your shop, you might as well put 220 in whether you use it right now or not. The panels that you buy usually are designed for the 2 legs of a 220 entrance. This way you can get more individual circuits, too. I'd say that if you have any motors that are over about 1 1/2 HP, that 220 would be the way to go. Do you have an air compressor? Is your shop heated? A cold air compressor starts hard; better on 220. If you heat your shop occasionally, and are considering spot heating, Enco has a nice little 13,000 BTU heater that utilizes 220. Think about the future, too. Might you be getting bigger equipment some day? ----Of course, you'll be using 12 ga. wire for all the 110 volt stuff, anyway, won't you? If you are new to the wiring game, there's a neat little book out there callled "Wiring Simplified". Google that and you'll find many sources. Well worth having.
Pete Stanaitis ----------------------
Old Guy wrote:

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Probably...
My Nova lathe claims 2 different HP ratings, 110 and 220.. never tried it, since it requires a surge protector and a good one for 220v is almost as expensive as buying a lathe!
OTOH, besides the stated advantages like starting, amp draw, etc., the main thing that converting my TS and BS to 220v did was lighten the load on the 110v circuits..
mac
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Yes, put in some placed 220 circuits and strategically placed outlets. It is easier and cheaper to do now while the other electrical work is going on.
Larger motors that can run on 220 generally do better that way. The biggest reason is that you loose less power through resistive losses, both in the delivery to the tool and sometimes in the motor itself.
Think about what tools you may have in the future. A good size dust collector or air compressor can often use 220 nicely. Also larger table saw, shapers, etc - stuff with motors over 1 HP.
I wired my table saw for 220 and runs smoother and has a quicker start up, but I have no scientific evidence tp back it up, just personal observation. It may depend on the design of the particular tool/motor.
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Reduced current draw, whick means lower line losses.
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wrote:

I don't think anybody's mentioned that if you pop a circuit breaker with a 220v tool, the lights won't go out, possibly leaving you with a spinning blade in the dark.
--
Mortimer Schnerd, RN
mschnerdatcarolina.rr.com
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"Mortimer Schnerd, RN" <mschnerdatcarolina.rr.com> wrote in message wrote:

If you have your shop wired properly (i.e. with a separate lighting circuit) that won't happen with 110v either.
Ed
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I guess "properly" is the key. I rent and had no say in the wiring initially. I tapped into the lighting circuit because it was available where I wanted my saw. I now have dedicated 110 and 220 circuits but that didn't happen for a while. My table saw, RAS, and dust collector are still on 110 (though dedicated circuit). My bandsaw and jointer are on 220.
--
Mortimer Schnerd, RN
mschnerdatcarolina.rr.com
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"Old Guy" wrote:

Congratulations.
Yes.
Some basic design parameters for home shop electrical service.
Incoming main panel:
2P-60A main with provisions for 24, 1P branch C'Bkr.
Stationary machine tools:
240V, 2P-30A CB with 10 AWG for all stationary machines (Not required for all machines but standardization reduces cost)
120V, 1P-20A with 12 AWG for all receptacle circuits as well as separate lighting circuits.
Have fun.
Lew
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Absolutely. Your cords and extension cords will be less likely to be part of a bog down problem.
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Old Guy (older than me?)
Be sure to get a panel with lots of spaces. Even if it is rated 100 or 125 amps or more its rating will be what the circuit breaker is that feeds it. In my case I have a 125 amp panel that is fed from the main panel with a 2 pole 60 amp breaker. A code provision allows or is applicable to this arrangement.
Pick a plug and receptacle type and stick with it. In my case I use 20 amp plugs and receptacles for my 220. Since all my cords hang down from the receptacles I use the angle type of plug. I bought a bunch on Ebay and have a good supply.
Do not ground the neutral in the subpanel. If possible drive in a 10' ground rod near the panel and of course connect it and the ground from the main panel to the ground buss in the subpanel. You shold also have a separate neutral buss, ungrounded in the subpanel.
Take care and enjoy Bob AZ
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Thanks to everyone for their experience and advice.
I think I have some motor rewiring to do.
Old Guy
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Yes, there is a slightly higher effeciency and smoother starting with the 220v. Give the machine you turn on/off most a higher priority, such as a dust collector and table saw.
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wrote:

I'm amazed. About a dozen replies and no one has yet tried to say it is cheaper to operate. Progress.
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wrote:

Isn't that just a more plebian way to say it's "higher efficiency"? That said, of all the reasons stated, (IMO) the cost savings is the least significant.
Ed
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There is a slight savings from the higher efficiency, but someone usually incorrectly points out that amps are half therefore the cost to operate is half.
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wrote in message

Duh. I'm new around here... sarcasm missed.
Ed
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It appears that the beatings have worked!! Greg
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