Wiki: Plasterboarding

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NT
'''Awaiting final review - information may be incomplete, or just plain wrong'''
''With thanks to the contributers at uk.d-i-y USENET group, original thread here: [http://groups.google.co.uk/group/uk.d-i-y/browse_thread / thread/fbcf0a3312e7e0b7/294d827b75dc2f22]''
=General plasterboarding information, tips and tricks ==See also=*[[Sheet Materials#Plasterboard|plasterboard]] *[[Partition_Wall]] *[[:Category:Plastering|Plastering articles]]
==Thickness=* Typical thicknesses are 9.5mm and 12.5mm. * 9mm is a good choice for ceilings, where extra weight would make the job harder * 9 is not very robust for wall use, 12 is a good deal tougher for very little more cost, and its better acoustically. * 2 layers of PB can be used for extra robustness, [[Stud wall noise reduction|better acoustics]] and longer [[fire]] resistance. Sticking the 2 layers together makes them even tougher. * Thicker sizes, eg 15mm or 18mm exist as well as thinner, eg 6mm.
==Sheet Size=* Sheet sizes are commonly 2.4 x 1.2m (aka 8ft by 4ft, most usual size), and 1.5m x 0.9m (for easier handling, especially on ceilings). Trying to use whole 8x4s for ceilings isn't recommended, they're too heavy and too big to handle easily.
== Types =* Plain - paper both sides. Usually beige or grey in colour. Most PB is this type * Vapour barrier or vapour check - usually with a metallised plastic film (which may degrade radio signals such as cordless telephones or Wifi). * Fire check - usually pink in colour * Moisture shield - for areas of high humidity, usually green. * Sound block or acoustic plasterboard - usually blue. * Various combinations of the above properties, dependant on manufacturer.
Note: some older types of board had one side designed for painting and one designed for skimming. The approach seems to be less common these days (2009), with one side only designated as the face side. Fit the board the right way around for best results. The facing side has no paper joins or edges, the back has, and often has information printed on it. Its no disaster to use the board the wrong way, it just means more chance of paper peeling and a slightly less consistently finished surface.
== Edge finishes =* Taper - for filling prior to painting direct. * Square edge - used when a skim coat of plaster is going to be applied. * Recessed edge - for filling with no skim coat
== Permuations = Not every permutation of edge, type, size and thickness are available so you should check with your local supplier before committing to a particular design.
== Building regulations = For certain applications, you may need to meet certain levels of fire resistance or [[Stud wall noise reduction|acoustic performance]]. For now, this is an area too involved to cover here, so please seek the advice of your local Building Control department at your Borough/ District Council if you have any doubts.
Sometimes you may be asked to fit two overlapping layers of plasterboard with staggered joints to allow longer fire resistance times.
Otherwise, use 9.5mm for ceilings and 12.5mm for walls as a sensible default, in whatever sheet sizes are most convenient.
= Cutting plasterboard There are three basic types of cut most commonly needed:
== Straight cut across full board =* Used all the time when boarding large areas * Very easy and clean to do. # Place board across a couple of supports (eg sawhorses, workmates or even lumps of timber or bricks if nothing else to hand). Be sure the board is well supported near the new cut and stable. # Mark the cut line # Score through the paper layer on one side of the board with a sharp stanley type [[Knives|knife]]. A couple of lighter strokes are better (and safer) than applying serious pressure. Always work the knife away from your body and hands - it's very easy for the knife to slip. <p>[[Image:Scoring-plasterboard.jpg]]</p> # Position the board so that one of the supports runs parallel and just behind the score line. # Put the knife away(!) # Using both hands (better two people, if the cut is long, eg 2.4m board), gently rotate the board edge downwards. The board should snap cleanly along the scored line. # The cut section of the board will continue to hang on the layer of cardboard on the back. Do not attempt to rip by tearing the cut section off - it will make a mess. <p>[[Image:Snapping-scored- plasterboard.jpg]]</p> # Retrieve the [[Knives|knife]] and whilst supporting the cut section at 45-90 degrees, simply cut through the remaining paper. The result should be a clean straight edge, mostly square with almost no dust. # If desired the edge may be cleaned up with sandpaper, a coarse file, a coarse hand stone (this bit makes some mess) or a knife.
Special knives are available which claim to work well but these have not been tested by the author: [http://www.google.co.uk/products ? q=Gyproc+bladerunner Gyproc bladerunner]
== Alternative method requiring less space and handling = (Copied with edits, with thanks to the original author)
# Have the board vertical, leaning against a wall. # Use a metal straight edge (long level typically), mark two points and align the level holding the bottom of it with your foot, and the top with one hand, then score with the other. # Snap the board by hitting it in the middle of the back of the cut, and separate.
All in all it takes less space, and less handling of the board. You also are less likely to damage a board getting in and out of cutting positions.
== Round hole = See section on [[Holesaw]]
== Fiddly cuts =* You'll need a narrow bladed [[saw]], such as a padsaw, or a knife. A hacksaw blade in a holder will suffice for small works. * For extended work or cutting square holes for lightswitches, proper plasterboard saws are available which have pointy ends for piercing the board and coarse teeth.
Removing a rectangular section from a corner or edge can be done with a combination of sawing and scoring for the final cut, or with a [[Knives|knife]].
= Fixing plasterboard == To wood (eg ceilings and wooden studwork) =* The sheets may be [[screw]]ed (best) or [[nail]]ed (old fashioned method, not so good as nails can loosen) directly to the studwork or ceiling rafters. * For nailing, plasterboard nails are needed, though the consensus on uk.d-i-y is that they are nowhere near as good as using screws. * For screwing, purpose made drywall [[screws]] exist. These have a continuous thread, bugle head (designed not to tear the paper which weakens the fixing), a very sharp point for self drilling, a thin shank for easy pilotless insertion, and are not liable to corrode. On the end of a small cordless electric screwdriver, these generally go in single handed, quickly and securely. The heads become "lost" in the surface of the plasterboard. Purpose made driver bits are available that help to prevent the screw going in too deep. [[Image:Plasterboard-driver-and-screws.jpg]] [[Image:Plasterboard- driver-bit.jpg]]
* Be aware if you are screwing or nailing over an area with low support (eg a hole in the previous plasterboard that you are covering. The screws can crack small sections of your new board especially near the edge. * Put enough [[screws]] or [[nails]] in to support the board so it feels firm all over. Every 30cm is a reasonable gauge (you want to avoid any parts of the boards being able to flex significantly if you are going to skim plaster it). Obviously, rafter or [[Stud wall| studwork]] puts limits on screw spacings in one direction.
=== Notes for ceiling work ==1.8 x 0.9m x 9mm board is easily handled by two people without additional props. One person should have the [[screwdriver]] at the ready with plenty of screws and be in a position to rest the board on their head periodically whilst reaching for the next screw. Once a couple of well spaced screws are in supporting the whole board, both people can let go and concentrate on getting the rest of the screws in.
Working single handedly is also possible using a prop. A variety of tools are available or can be made: * '''Plasterboard lifters''' [http://www.google.co.uk/products ? q=plasterboard%20lifter Google search]. Expensive and generally used by contractors on large projects, but also hireable. * '''Plasterboard prop''' [http://www.google.co.uk/products ? q=plasterboard%20prop Google search]. Cheaper ready made solution. * '''DIY prop''' or dead man: may be made from a length of wood and a short T bar fixed across the top. See here: [[Dead_man_prop]]
== To brickwork and old plaster =Board is often fixed using blobs of drywall adhesive [http:// www.google.co.uk/products?q=dry%20wall%20adhesive Google search] at regular intervals.
(Copied mostly verbatim with thanks to the original author)
D&D (Dot and Dab) is used on newbuild as well as old [[plaster]] and brickwork, certainly on 'thermalite' type blocks, the lightweight insulative ones are only really fit to have D&D as most other plasters won't adhere - even dry lining adhesive (DLA) will only stick to it once it's been damped down, indeed, all surfaces to have D&D should be damped down but thermalite thoroughly due to the high suction.
Mixing DLA is similar to mixing other [[plaster]], except it's more sticky obviously and it should be mixed slightly thicker if you are going over very uneven surfaces, so that you can use huge blobs to get the board out to the desired level, if you mix it too wet, you can't build it out thick enough. Working time is normally 45mins, but it can last longer.
Make sure the wall to be lined is free from [[nails]], [[screws]] and other protusions and any old plaster is sound. Flaky or loose plaster should be removed, as should any old wallpaper, and [[paint]]ed surfaces should be scored with a blade or scrabbler to form a key, and a coat of dilute (1:1) [[PVA]] and [[water]] applied prior to work commencing - it doesn't matter if this is wet or left to dry, brick or blockwork just requires wetting with plain water as mentioned above.
Some people apply the DLA to the wall and others apply it to the back of the board, personally I prefer to apply it to the wall because a board can get very heavy with two dozen blobs of DLA on the back of it so I will describe this method.
Only apply the DLA to the part of the wall which is to be covered by one board (you may need to measure) and using a gauger or small trowel apply snowball sized blobs to the wall about every 12ins, try to keep the blobs even because large ones will cause a bulge, while very small ones will probably not touch the back of the board.
Once all the blobs are in place, offer the board to the wall, but remember that if you are working on a bare wall, you will need some pieces of scrap timber as spacers at the bottom so that the board is not in contact with the floor, an inch or two is sufficient, this is assuming there is no skirting board already in place. Once the board is in contact with the DLA, use a spirit [[level]] (about 3 ft long if you have one) in all directions to make sure the board is not bulging anywhere and then proceed with the blobs for the next board, bearing in mind that on large walls, the joints should be staggered in a similar way to brickwork, this is to avoid long straight joints which are prone to cracking, even though you will still get a long straight joint in one direction, there's no need for two!
(End of contributed material)
This link has some very good pictures: [http:// www.ultimatehandyman.co.uk/PLASTER_BOARDING_DIREcT_BOND.htm Ultimate Handyman]
=Curved PlasterboardThere are 2 ways to fit plasterboard to curves. # Wet the board to soften it, fix into place and let it dry # For greater flexibility use a flexible plasterboard intended for the job
[[Category:Building]] [[Category:Construction]]
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Tabby wrote:

Latest building regs seem to require dot and dab to be completely sealed around the edge of each sheet to cut infiltration.
AJH
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I've never p/b'd a ceiling but is DIY-ing full size boards using one of the "panel lifters" you mention later a bit more practicable or still a stupid-idea-for-all-but-the-gurus? I ask in part as they have always looked like nice toys :)
--
Robin
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Robin wrote:

Our building maintenance guy puts up 8x4 12.5mm on the ceiling by himself. He makes two Tee pieces from 2x2 just a fraction longer than the finished distance from his working trestle to the ceiling. Balances the sheet on his head and somehow steps onto the trestle with the Tees and uses his feet to wedge the bottoms in place. Then he screws along the joists which he has premarked on the plasterboard.
I was helping him fit 15mm acoustic ceiling boards on Friday and we used much the same method between two of us and I found that hard enough.
We have to fit a second layer with no overlapping joints and intumescent sealant all round to achieve >20kg/m2 and 1 hour fire delay, so I shall try and avoid him ;-).
AJH
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On 27/02/2011 14:03, Robin wrote:

I found it reasonably easy using 12mm 8x4' sheets and a single dead man prop made from some spare tile batten. However that was in a room where I could reach the ceiling working from the floor without staging etc. It would be harder if you needing more complicated climbing to get high enough. (better if you make sure you have enough staging that you can work from the elevated level and not need to climb onto it while carrying sheets of PB)
I would start by wedging the dead man in under a completed bit so that I could reach it from under the new board. Lift the new board overhead and push it up to the ceiling. Once against the ceiling, one hand in roughly the middle of the board would keep it there and allow the other to retrieve the prop. Place that under the centre and kick it gently into place. That will now take the full board weight. Adjust the position of the board to get into the final fixing position and kick the prop in tighter to lock the position. Now screw into place.
One other suggestion I have seen that can help is length of rope nailed between a spread of joists, hanging down a little below ceiling level. You can then lift the board overhead, and slide one end into the rope loop. That will then take the weight of one end while you fix the other.
--
Cheers,

John.

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Helpful as usual. But I think I will go to my grave without that experience given (i) I am a weakling and (ii) when I checked a few years ago some firms would hire a panel lifter for ~35+VAT a week. Besides, I can all too easily see myself ending up wearing 8x4' of plasterboard as a ruff :(
--
Robin
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On 27/02/2011 21:18, Robin wrote:

IME one board at a time, is not too bad... getting the 50 boards up two storeys however just about finished me for the day!
--
Cheers,

John.

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It might be worth emphasising that more than half the battle is getting all the sheets in right place - and that it's worth a lot of planning effort to figure out exactly how you're going to do it, and everything possible to make it easier (getting hold of board lifting handles, skates/trolleys, removing doors, moving everything possible out of the path, adding protection at scrape points, constructing temporary ramps etc.)
Along with my GF's dad, one weekend we shifted 85 sheets upstairs and into the various rooms. Smartest thing I did was to build a temporary ski-slope type ramp so we could send the boards up and over an upstairs balcony, rather than have to wiggle them round the turns on the stairs.
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Been following this with interest as a 5m x 5m bedroom ceiling needs re-sheeting over lathe and plaster. Thank goodness this is a single storey building and I can take the sashes out of a window !
Rob
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On 28/02/2011 10:21, robgraham wrote:

In my case I made sure I shifted them into place before I put the second flight of stairs in! I had the sheets delivered onto the drive about 5m from the front door. Picked em up one at a time and carried them to the foot of the stairs - poking the top up the stairwell and sitting them on the third step so they were resting on the wall of the floor above. Once I had about 10 waiting there, I could pickup one while on the third or fourth step, and lift it straight up until holding it directly above me on one arm in a continuous "clean and jerk" type action. At which point my helper on the top floor grabbed the end as it came up and pulled it up the rest of the way. A couple of pairs of those resin coated gripper gloves proved *very* useful.
--
Cheers,

John.

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I usually wouldn't advocate mentioning a single proprietary tool, but I found the bladerunner tool made such a difference to cutting boards speedily and accurately, that it might deserve an exception?
http://www.gyprocbladerunner.com/index.php
Other tools worth a mention include, plasterboard rasps (I only have one with guides, and never felt the need for any other), saws (I have the little dagger kind, but I think I've seen full-size plasterboard "panel" saws too), big tee squares, and long-as-possible rules (I use a 1.8m level).
You can't have too many tape measures.
Multimaster type tools excellent for doing quick, precise cutouts for sockets.
Board-lifter handles, and homemade skates/trolleys useful to minimise the effort of getting boards to their destination.
Laser guides for people working on a bigger scale (not got one, not used one).
Other tips - photograph the studwork before you put the boards on, to keep a record of pipe and cable routes (thanks Ben!).
Steel nail-proof plates cheaply available to protect the same - a very little effort to put them in place before boarding.
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On Sun, 27 Feb 2011 05:31:59 -0800, Tabby wrote:

One thing I noticed over here - and may be true your side of the Pond too - is that the 12' sheets are cheaper per sqft than the 8' ones, so if you have a vehicle that can move them it's more economical to get the longer boards (not to mention potential for less joints to fill / tape)
There's also ultralight stuff being heavily promoted at the moment here. Supposedly 30% lighter in weight than traditional board, but otherwise with the same properties. Maybe it's not available in the UK, but if it is it'd be interesting to hear comments from anyone who's worked with it. (I assume it's more expensive by volume than traditional board)

DIY stores here are awash with packs of 100 stanley knife blades designed for plasterboard/sheetrock/drywall use (pick your favourite term ;) They seem to work well and are cheap, and I've had no complaints using them for other tasks too.
I've used a metal-cutting blade in a jigsaw before to cut board where I needed a non-straight cut and that worked well; whether it'd stand up to lots of cuts though I don't know.
cheers
Jules
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Typo on the board sizes - should be 1.8m x 0.9m, not 1.5. Main other common size is 4ft x 3ft (1220mm x 900mm for some reason). Also available from good stockists are 9 x 4 and 10 x 4 boards, which can make a big difference in houses with high ceilings.
I'd second the vote for mentioning the blade runner - it's a fantastic tool when you've got a lot of boarding to do. I'd also mention collated screws for fixing. A decent collated screwgun speeds things up enormously, and makes ceiling boarding much easier.
Boards should be positioned with a 3mm gap between them - it reduces cracking in the finish, as you get a decent thickness of skim or filler in the gap.
A
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Someone told me every nine inches for ceilings? [g]
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A lot of really good feedback here. Here's the latest version...
=General plasterboarding information, tips and tricks=
==See also== *[[Sheet Materials#Plasterboard|Plasterboard]] *[[Partition_Wall]] *[[:Category:Plastering|Plastering articles]] * With thanks to the contributers at uk.d-i-y [[Usenet]] group, original thread here: [http://groups.google.co.uk/group/uk.d-i-y / browse_thread/thread/fbcf0a3312e7e0b7/294d827b75dc2f22]
==Thickness== * Common thicknesses are 9.5mm and 12.5mm. * 9mm is a good choice for ceilings, where extra weight would make the job harder * 9 is not very robust for wall use, 12 is a good deal tougher for very little more cost, and its better acoustically. * 2 layers of PB can be used for extra robustness, [[Stud wall noise reduction|better acoustics]] and longer [[fire]] resistance. Sticking the 2 layers together makes them even tougher. * Thicker sizes, eg 15mm or 18mm exist as well as thinner, eg 6mm.
==Sheet Size== * Sheet sizes are commonly 2.4 x 1.2m (aka 8ft by 4ft, most usual size), and 1.8m x 0.9m (6x3) (for easier handling, especially on ceilings). Trying to use whole 8x4s for ceilings isn't recommended, they're too heavy and big to handle easily.
Also available are: * 4' x 3' (1220mm x 900mm) * 9' x 4' and 10' x 4' boards, very handy with high ceilings.
==Types== * Plain - paper both sides. Usually beige or grey in colour. Most PB is this type * Vapour barrier or vapour check - usually with a metallised plastic film (which may degrade radio signals such as cordless telephones or [[Networking|Wifi]]). * [[Fire]] check - usually pink in colour * Moisture shield - for areas of high [[:Category:Damp|humidity]], usually green. * Sound block or acoustic plasterboard - usually blue. * Various combinations of the above properties, dependant on manufacturer.
Note: some older types of board had one side designed for [[paint]]ing and one designed for skimming. The approach seems to be less common these days (2009), with one side only designated as the face side. Fit the board the right way around for best results. The facing side has no paper joins or edges, the back has, and often has information printed on it. Its no biggie to use the board the wrong way, it just means more chance of paper peeling and a slightly less consistently finished surface.
==Edge shapes== * Taper - for filling prior to [[paint]]ing direct. * Recessed edge - also for [[Filler|filling]] with no [[Plaster|skim coat]] * Square edge - used when a skim coat of [[plaster]] is going to be applied.
==Permuations== Not every permutation of edge, type, size and thickness are available so you should check with your local supplier before committing to a particular design.
==Building regulations== For certain applications, you may need to meet certain levels of [[fire]] resistance or [[Stud wall noise reduction|acoustic performance]]. For now, this is an area too involved to cover here, so please seek the advice of your local Building Control department at your Borough/District Council if you have any doubts.
Sometimes you may be asked to fit two overlapping layers of plasterboard with staggered joints to allow longer fire resistance times.
Otherwise, use 9.5mm for ceilings and 12.5mm for walls as a sensible default, in whatever sheet sizes are most convenient.
==Cables & pipes== [[Screw]]ing into them is less than ideal. Photographing the [[Stud wall|studwork]] before you put the boards on gives you a record of pipe & [[cable]] runs.
Steel plates are cheaply available to protect pipes & wires where they pass through uprights. It takes little effort to fit them before boarding.
==Tools== Useful [[:Category:Tools|tools]] include... * Utility [[knife]] & blades, or wallpaper [[knives]] * You can't have too many tape measures. * as long-as-possible metal ruler, ideally 1-2m - but a large spirit [[level]] or even a straight piece of timber can substitute * big tee square (or a hardboard offcut will do) * pointy shaped [[saw]], eg padsaw * Cordless drill or similar for screwdriving * [[Dead man prop]] for plasterboarding ceilings * Plasterboard [[Hex bits|screwdriving bit]] can help if you're not good at setting screw depth correctly.
Also nice: * The [http://www.gyprocbladerunner.com/index.php Gyproc bladerunner] gets a big thumbs up for making board cutting much faster & more accurate. * plasterboard rasps with guides * [[Oscillating tools|Fein Multimaster]] type tool excellent for doing quick, precise cutouts for sockets. * Board-lifter handles, and skates/trolleys are useful to manoeuvre boards easier. Both are easily homemade. * Laser guide if working on a bigger scale * A decent collated screwgun speeds things up enormously * For curved cuts, a metal-cutting blade in a jigsaw works well.
==Logistics== Plasterboard sheets are large, but the corners are very weak. Watch it when you move them, its very easy to bump them into things and crush the corners. Don't scrape them across anything when putting them down. If you have to leave them horizontally overnight for some reason, lining the corners up properly much reduces the risk of damage.
Getting the plasterboard sheets to the right place is a sizeable part of the physical work when they need to go upstairs. If you're doing a large job, moving the plasterboard can be demanding, and its worth doing all you can to make this operation easier. For a large job this can include: use board lifting handles, skates/trolleys, remove doors, move everything possible out of the path, add protection at scrape points, maybe construct temporary ramps etc. Plan it fully.
=Cutting plasterboard= There are three basic types of cut most commonly needed:
==Straight cut across full board== * Used all the time when boarding large areas * Very easy and clean to do. # Place board across a couple of supports (eg sawhorses, workmates or even lumps of timber or bricks if nothing else to hand). Be sure the board is well supported near the new cut and stable. # Mark the cut line # Score through the paper layer on one side of the board with a sharp stanley type [[Knives|knife]]. A couple of lighter strokes are better (and safer) than applying serious pressure. Always work the knife away from your body and hands - it's very easy for the knife to slip. <p>[[Image:Scoring-plasterboard.jpg]]</p> # Position the board so that one of the supports runs parallel and just behind the score line. # Put the knife away(!) # Using both hands (better two people, if the cut is long, eg 2.4m board), gently rotate the board edge downwards. The board should snap cleanly along the scored line. # The cut section of the board will continue to hang on the layer of cardboard on the back. Do not attempt to rip by tearing the cut section off - it will make a mess. <p>[[Image:Snapping-scored- plasterboard.jpg]]</p> # Retrieve the [[Knives|knife]] and whilst supporting the cut section at 45-90 degrees, simply cut through the remaining paper. The result should be a clean straight edge, mostly square with almost no dust. # If desired the edge may be cleaned up with [[sandpaper]], a coarse file, a coarse hand stone (this bit makes some mess) or a knife.
==Alternative method requiring less space and handling== (Copied with edits, with thanks to the original author)
# Have the board vertical, leaning against a wall. # Use a metal straight edge (long [[level]] typically), mark two points and align the level holding the bottom of it with your foot, and the top with one hand, then score with the other. # Snap the board by hitting it in the middle of the back of the cut, and separate.
All in all it takes less space, and less handling of the board. You also are less likely to damage a board getting in and out of cutting positions.
==Fiddly cuts== * You'll need a narrow bladed [[saw]], such as a padsaw, or a [[knife]]. A hacksaw blade in a holder will suffice for small works. * For extended work or cutting square holes for lightswitches, proper plasterboard saws are available which have pointy ends for piercing the board and coarse teeth.
Removing a rectangular section from a corner or edge can be done with a combination of sawing and scoring for the final cut, or with a [[Knives|knife]].
=Fixing plasterboard= ==To wood (eg ceilings and wooden studwork)== * The sheets may be [[screw]]ed (best) or nailed (old fashioned method, not so good as nails can loosen) directly to the [[Stud wall| studwork]] or ceiling rafters. * For nailing, plasterboard nails are needed, though the consensus on uk.d-i-y is that they are nowhere near as good as using screws. * For screwing, use purpose made drywall [[screws]]. These have a continuous thread, bugle head (designed not to tear the paper which weakens the fixing), a very sharp point for self drilling, a thin shank for easy pilotless insertion, and are not liable to corrode. On the end of a small cordless electric screwdriver, these generally go in single handed, quickly and securely. The heads become "lost" in the surface of the plasterboard. Non-PB screws make a mess of the plasterboard, and create a weaker fixing * Purpose made [[Hex bits|driver bits]] are available that help to prevent the screw going in too deep. [[Image:Plasterboard-driver-and-screws.jpg]] [[Image:Plasterboard- driver-bit.jpg]]
* Be aware if you are screwing or nailing over an area with low support (eg a hole in the previous plasterboard that you are covering. The screws can crack small sections of your new board especially near the edge. * Put enough [[screws]] or [[nails]] in to support the board so it feels firm all over. Every 9-12" is a reasonable spacing for 12mm on walls, or 6-9" for 9mm on ceilings (opinions vary a bit). You want to avoid any board edges being able to flex if you are going to skim it). Obviously, rafter or [[Stud wall|studwork]] puts limits on screw spacings in one direction.
===Ceiling work=== 1.8 x 0.9m x 9mm board is easily handled by two people without additional props. One person should have the [[screwdriver]] at the ready with plenty of screws and be in a position to rest the board on their head periodically whilst reaching for the next screw. Once a couple of well spaced [[screws]] are in supporting the whole board, both people can let go and concentrate on getting the rest of the screws in.
Working single handedly is also possible using a [[Dead man prop| prop]]. A variety of tools are available or can be made: * Plasterboard lifters [http://www.google.co.uk/products?q=plasterboard %20lifter Google search]. Expensive and generally used by contractors on large projects, but also hireable. * [[Lifting Prop|Plasterboard prop]]. Cheaper ready made solution. * [[Dead_man_prop|DIY prop]] or dead man: quickly made from a length of wood * A less common method is to nail a length of rope between a spread of joists, hanging down a little below ceiling level. You can then lift the board overhead, and slide one end into the rope loop. That will then take the weight of one end while you fix the other.
==To brickwork and old plaster== Board is often fixed using blobs of drywall adhesive [http:// www.google.co.uk/products?q=dry%20wall%20adhesive Google search] at regular intervals.
D&D (Dot and Dab) is used on newbuild as well as old [[plaster]] and brickwork, certainly on 'thermalite' type blocks, the lightweight insulative ones are only really fit to have D&D as most other plasters won't adhere - even dry lining adhesive (DLA) will only stick to it once it's been damped down, indeed, all surfaces to have D&D should be damped down but thermalite thoroughly due to the high suction.
Mixing DLA is similar to mixing other [[plaster]], except it's more sticky obviously and it should be mixed slightly thicker if you are going over very uneven surfaces, so that you can use huge blobs to get the board out to the desired level, if you mix it too wet, you can't build it out thick enough. Working time is normally 45mins, but it can last longer.
Make sure the wall to be lined is free from [[nails]], [[screws]] and other protusions and any old plaster is sound. Flaky or loose plaster should be removed, as should any old wallpaper, and [[paint]]ed surfaces should be scored with a blade or scrabbler to form a key, and a coat of dilute (1:1) [[Adhesive|PVA]] and [[water]] applied prior to work commencing - it doesn't matter if this is wet or left to dry, brick or blockwork just requires wetting with plain water as mentioned above.
Some people apply the DLA to the wall and others apply it to the back of the board, personally I prefer to apply it to the wall because a board can get very heavy with two dozen blobs of DLA on the back of it so I will describe this method.
Only apply the DLA to the part of the wall which is to be covered by one board (you may need to measure) and using a gauger or small trowel apply snowball sized blobs to the wall about every 12ins, try to keep the blobs even because large ones will cause a bulge, while very small ones will probably not touch the back of the board.
Once all the blobs are in place, offer the board to the wall, but remember that if you are working on a bare wall, you will need some pieces of scrap timber as spacers at the bottom so that the board is not in contact with the floor, an inch or two is sufficient, this is assuming there is no skirting board already in place. Once the board is in contact with the DLA, use a spirit [[level]] (about 3 ft long if you have one) in all directions to make sure the board is not bulging anywhere and then proceed with the blobs for the next board, bearing in mind that on large walls, the joints should be staggered in a similar way to brickwork, this is to avoid long straight joints which are prone to cracking, even though you will still get a long straight joint in one direction, there's no need for two!
This link has some very good pictures: [http:// www.ultimatehandyman.co.uk/PLASTER_BOARDING_DIREcT_BOND.htm Ultimate Handyman]
=Curved Plasterboard= There are 2 ways to fit plasterboard to curves. # Wet the board to soften it, fix into place and let it dry # For greater flexibility use a flexible plasterboard intended for the job
=Plastering= A gap of about 3-5 mm should be left between boards when fitting. This enables the plaster to squish through to the rear, holding it in place more firmly and reducing cracking and stopping plaster falling out.
Board joints not supported all along by woodwork are inevitable, but should be minimised. These are by far the weakest part of any plastered wall or ceiling, and most likely to crack.
[[Tapes|Plasterboard joint tape]] is put over the joint before the plaster or filler is applied. This is an open mesh tape of plastic or fibreglass, and it reinforces the plaster joint to prevent cracking or pieces falling out.
There are 2 plastering options: # full skim coat covering the whole area. Excellent result, but significant work & skill # Fill the edge gaps only. Good result, much less work, less skill needed
When a joint fill only is used, wiping the filler/plaster on with a float makes for a fast job.
Its also an option to just stick [[Tapes|paper tape]] over the joints, and no plaster, but this is only really suitable for locations like garages where a good finish is not required.
=Noise reduction= There are various ways to reduce the sound transmission of timber frame walls. See [[Stud wall noise reduction]]
=Disposal= There's always damage along the way, so you need to buy a bit extra, and there's always plasterboard left over. Disposal options include: * break it up & bin it * break it up & bury in the [[:Category:Garden|garden (gypsum is used as a soil amendment) * dump offcuts in an internal timber frame wall cavity, where it'll reduce [[Stud wall noise reduction|sound transmission]]
[[Category:Basics]] [[Category:Building]] [[Category:Construction]] [[Category:Plastering]]
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Excellent - becoming a very useful guide.
My board-snapping technique is somewhat different from "gently rotate". I slide the sheet so the edge-to-snap is just overhanging the stack of boards beneath, then lift the whole board a bit (by the overhanging part), and bang it down - works for me.
Plasterboard disposal - local council recycling centres near to me have a special plasterboard recycling skip. Sponsored by a plasterboard manufacturer - gets taken away to be ground down and included in new boards.
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