You are somewhat restricting the discussion. Given that, replacement
wood sashes with double-pane low-e glazing, and tight seals
side/top/bottom, made for major reduction of noise-transmission.
All the vinyl sashes I've seen are flimsy, ... and I'd be concerned
about long-term UV.
Note the above about the sealing around the sashes. More than just
You must be in one unusual area to not have to factor in energy costs.