25 to 1 ratio

Animal Factory: The Looming Threat of Industrial Pig, Dairy, and Poultry Farms to Humans and the Environment by David Kirby <(Amazon.com product link shortened) 004IK9EJQ/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid10272843&sr=1-1> (Available at your local library, until they are closed.)
RAISING A STINK I 189
HOG FARROWING IN SWEDEN
In 1971, Sweden banned the use of tethers for restraining sows because the practice created an "extremely high incidence of traumatic injuries," reported Marlene Halverson, an advisor to the Animal Welfare Institute. A second study showed a higher rate of disease among "dry sows" (sows that were pregnant or not lactating) in crates, versus those loosely housed in groups.
By 1985, "deep-bedded housing systems" with individual feeding stalls had become (and remain) the method of choice for housing dry sows in Sweden, because of their improved efficiency, aesthetics, and neighbor relations, and the health and well-being of the animals.
Pigs are highly sentient, intelligent, and social creatures, and sows have in- herent rules of group identity and hierarchy. While these attributes are virtu- ally ignored in CAFOs, Swedish farms take steps to ensure proper socialization and reduce stress on the herd. Females require about six and a half feet of space when meeting, to establish rank and avoid fights. Each sow needs at least twenty-seven square feet to avoid stress on lower-ranked sows. Karen was
190 I ANIMAL FACTORY
amazed. She knew that dry sows at the Highlands barely had room to turn around.
Meanwhile, the correct mixing of urine and feces with straw can nearly eliminate strong odors, especially compared to a pit-and-lagoon system. As fresh straw is added to wet spots, it helps keep bedding dry while sustaining aerobic decomposition. "The straw-to-manure-balance provides a high car- bon/nitrogen ratio, which binds nitrogen. The beds do not give off ammonia or hydrogen sulfide," Halverson said. "Two major manure emission sources are thus controlled, and composting also destroys pathogens."
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So, not only is the ratio of 25 to 1 (C/N) good for compost. It is also
good for the smells that comes from CAFOs.
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