A steam boiler may use a thermostat to control a buildings temperature. The
thermostat may fire the burner, which will heat until it makes low steam
pressure. There are often two operating pressure controls that limit how
much steam pressure is made. There is a high limit safety that prevents too
much steam pressure in the system.There is also a low water cutoff and water
feeder control that makes sure the boiler has sufficient water before it
allows the burner to fire. Sometimes there are motorized valves directing
steam to several locations
This would vary with the size of the burner and the piping from the oil tank
to the burners pump(s). Essentially, when whatever control tells the burner
to fire, it starts an oil feed pump,which pumps oil from the tank to the
burner, which blows atomized oil into the firebox, gets ignited, confirms
ignition and boils the water
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