Earthquake Building

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Every once in a while there's an earthquake somewhere that does some decent damage. Recently it happened in Bam Iraq, and the city wasn't structurally prepared. 35,000 or so died.
Satellite image of Bam after Quake. http://www.lbszone.com/news/12292003_7.html
A few more mud building pics http://snipurl.com/3n28
Iran's quake: Nothing 'natural' about this disaster http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0102/p11s01-coop.html "The earthquake in Bam reached a magnitude of 6.6 and killed more than 20,000; yet an earthquake in San Francisco in 1989 that measured 7.1 and caused $10 billion worth of damage, resulted in only 63 deaths."
Buildings should be built to withstand a reasonable earthquake, even in an area where such events are unlikely.
One of the newer safeguarding methods is rapid prediction and warning. Apparently, even in an area very near the earthquake-producing fault, you can get perhaps a minute - it depends - of warning. In this time, trains can stop, elevators can make it to the nearest floor, gas lines could be shut off, etc.
But the main method of structural preparedness is designing to accommodate lateral forces.
What are the better methods to design and build for an earthquake?
Here's a start
http://www.google.com/search?&q κrthquake+building+construction
--
*********************
* Nehmo Sergheyev *
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Hi
Nehmo Sergheyev skrev i meddelelsen

There is not just one technology providing safer structures, but those avaible is all High-tech , and to restore structures to face what would happen in the future , you must count in more than one technology.
Also you can not just restore ,you need to restore for the future.
P.C. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/structure-testbench-2 /
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Bolting your walls down to the foundation (sill plate) is one of the main things that can be done which is not difficult in new construction.
Nehmo Sergheyev wrote:

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Nehmo Sergheyev wrote:

Enforcement of building codes helps too. When an earthquake hit Turkey in 1999, the damage was far more widespread than it should have been. The reason was that while the building codes on the books would have helped prevent much of the damage, they simply weren't being enforced. I'd bet money that the same was true in Bam Iran.
http://mceer.buffalo.edu/outreach/pr/turkey2.asp
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A good book about this is PEACE OF MIND IN EARTHQUAKE COUNTRY, endorsed by Charles Richter, of Richter Scale fam, himself. But it's important to get the second edition because it was written after the LA quake and was revised to say that stucco and shiplap wooden sheathing require plywood backing, where the previous edition said that welded wire lath and stucco was adequate for moderate quakes.
Many areas have inadequate or no earthquake codes, including parts of the U.S. Southeast, where one of the worst quakes ever in the U.S. hit in the 19th century. Homes should be built on one-piece foundations, not on individual piers, and wooden homes bolted to it every 4 feet, including within 1 foot of each corner. All structural lumber should be tied together with metal brackets, like StrongTies, and covered with 3/8" or thicker plywood nailed all along the edge and center studs. I don't know if OSP waferboard is an acceptable substitute. Masonry block construction is probably not a good idea because it really needs reinforcement about every 12", horiziontally and vertically, and every hollow has to be filled with grout, adding substantially to the cost. Poured, sprayed, or tilt-up masonry is probably cheaper and much stronger.
Many of my relatives are in the construction business in Japan and are paranoid about quakes, so even here in southern Arizona our masonry house was reinforced with steel I-beams in the garage, and our current home was built on shock absorbers.
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What do you mean - shock absorbers???? RO

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The whole foundation is "squishy".
RO wrote:

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I've seen an old unreinforced standstone building get cut off of it's footings and have 450 new rubber pads installed underneath it. Each pad was made up of alternating layers of rubber (recycled tired) and steel plates. The whole foundation was "squishy." It was pretty cool to see the building "floating" over the existing foundation (only from the crawlspace below).
P
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Base Isolators.
Rudy

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Are they still adequate for moderate quakes? Northridge was not moderate.

Are there times when this is not the correct or a viable option?

I feel like we're just quoting code here.
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............ ...First of all, as you cannot control the Nature, none can control its phenomenon neither. Therefore, as any earthquake is a just among those phenomenal exteriorization along any concentration, one way or an other, of an energy along its faisibility and need of an adequate utility. Something, however, none and nothing would be having any adequate ability to determine along a space time.
Therefore, for the time being, none as nothing can determine its interference, it remains only to prevent along a faster destruction as along a global destruction along the appearance of an any earthquake, whether it does remains as still any bad things for some, is a good things for others, as this a part of the human nature.
However, when we do turn around to construction industry, an advancement of the construction would as should a definitely as a systematically apply. Ultimately, out of missing, that in the case of an earthquake the mouvement of a destruction is a definitely along the third dimension, and this a part of the power and the force of the nature, definitely as a matter a fact!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!............ ...
--
Ahmed Ouahi, Architect
Best Regards!
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Hi

, the mouvement

part
True, earthquake run in waves so an interconnected assembly framewoork will not be affected by single frames movement. If a structure is huge enough covering a lot of spaces, then a framework structure will follow the earthquake waves surviving by not resisting the forces. Such matters shuld be build-in with computers, but I guess these are (computers) better for lotto.
I rather deal with tomorrow , than making today into studying estoday, ------ I se no reson why a 3D-H can't act as supporting structures ,holding the restored , but it will _not be Lego style ;))
P.C. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/structure-testbench-2
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.......... ...The most true is that you do still and you would definitely and forever remain the most stupid on the shell of the earth. When you do, furthermore, allow your ignorance to provide you with such stupidity, definitely as a matter a fact.
As you do know a shit how anything, whether everything the way and how it does run, out of a scannig any stupid publicity and let the computer to show it to you differently, something you do destroy definitely!!!!!!!!!!!!......... ...
--
Ahmed Ouahi, Architect
Wake Up!
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Hi

Now isn't this the sort of writing, that make usenet into such cosy place,
http://www.designcommunity.com/scrapbook/images/2985.jpg
P.C.
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........ ...As it does a definitely - usenet - shows, that it does not exist more a dangerous than a stupid!!!!!!!!........ ...
--
Ahmed Ouahi, Architect
Definitely!
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............ ...First of all, as you cannot control the Nature, none can control its phenomenon neither. Therefore, as any earthquake is a just among those phenomenal exteriorization along any concentration, one way or an other, of an energy along its faisibility and need of an adequate utility. Something, however, none and nothing would be having any adequate ability to determine along a space time.
Therefore, for the time being, none as nothing can determine its interference, it remains only to prevent along a faster destruction as along a global destruction along the appearance of an any earthquake, whether it does remains as still any bad things for some, is a good things for others, as this a part of the human nature.
However, when we do turn around to construction industry, an advancement of the construction would as should a definitely as a systematically apply. Ultimately, out of missing, that in the case of an earthquake the mouvement of a destruction is a definitely along the third dimension, and this a part of the power and the force of the nature, definitely as a matter a fact!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!............ ...
--
Ahmed Ouahi, Architect
Best Regards!
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Huh?
Alan
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energy
however,
a
it
Well now..................that was different.
JTMcC.
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May be we should just trust in Alla. If ya get beaned with a brick - so be it.
RO

none
along
whether
advancement
apply.
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If you build out of unreinforced mud brick, you'll get collapse. San Fran, OTOH, has some of the most advanced earthquake designs around and the design standards are upgraded with every major earthquake. Iran is relatively poor, California is rich - go figure.

If you design for progressive collapse, common in many jurisdictions, you'll satisfy many of the requirements for basic earthquake protection. This should be adequate in areas where earthquake risk is quite low.

And you'd be wrong some of the time. Earthquakes are assumed by most folks to generate lateral forces, however, they can generate considerable vertical and torsional forces as well. You have to design for all these things. Take a look at the collapse of the Olive View Medical Center in San Fernando in 1971 - all four corners of the building moved in a different direction - it collapsed in torsion (the ultimate flaw was incorrectly placed reinforcement in the concrete columns - the spiral containment wasn't run thru the floors but stopped short). (Actually the building was L-shaped in plan IIRC, so take "corners" figuratively).

Just go to the best building codes - start with California's.
Mike
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