In the case where only a 3-wire existed, it would be a hot, hot, ground. And
most likely, type SEU cable. So the "pigtailing" would be from ground to
neutral, not neutral to ground. The ground would be smaller than the
conductors. And with all the 8/3 with ground I've seen, the ground is #10
The correct phrase would be "existing installations."
Here (Canada) whenever you replaced a stove or dryer you _had_ to install a
4-wire outlet, full stop. This dates back at least 30 years.
As I understand it, while Canada insists on going to 4 wire on ALL installations
(or renovations), US code has grandfathered 3 wire to the point where just
putting an outlet on a 3-wire circuit won't require an upgrade to 4-wire. Ask
an inspector to be sure. This will probably vary widely from place to place.
[This is despite the fact that in the US, they permit you to treat conduit as
a ground, hence a conduited 3-wire circuit is trivially upgradeable to 4 wire,
but in Canada, you cannot (legally) use conduit as a grounding conductor.]
Chris Lewis, Una confibula non set est
It's not just anyone who gets a Starship Cruiser class named after them.
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