hello all, i have joined this forum to be my help for this year of
i have a long garden which needs some attention
the main problem i have at the moment is ''poo'' from cat/fox on my
grass and in the bed, can i have some help on how to stop this as i
have a 16 months old little girl and wud like her to play outside.
(obviously have picked the bits up but need a long term solution :) )
2) ... best way to grass a patch of mud, very shaded damp area
3) (on budget) plants for hanging baskets and bed, cheap but resiliant
to shade and damp
many many thanks x
Something to consider.
Bill who placed the **** below.
1: Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008 Feb;43(2):107-16.
Childhood asthma epidemiology: insights from comparative studies of
rural and urban populations.
Wong GW, Chow CM.
Department of Pediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University
of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, China. email@example.com
Asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory disorders. Many
epidemiology studies have suggested an increasing trend of asthma in
many different regions of the world but the exact reasons explaining
such trend remain unclear. Nevertheless, changing environmental factors
are most likely important in explaining the trend of asthma. Studies in
the past decade have clearly shown a mark difference in the prevalence
between urban and rural regions. The consistent findings of a markedly
lower prevalence of asthma in children and adults who have been brought
up in a farming environment clearly indicate the importance of
environmental influence of asthma development. Although the exact
protective environmental factors in the rural region remain to be
****there have been many studies suggesting that early exposure to
microbes or microbial products may play a role in modulating the immune
system so as to reduce the future risk of asthma and allergies.****
Advances in the understanding of the genetic predisposition and how
these genetic factors may interact with specific environment factors are
of paramount importance for the future development of primary preventive
strategies for asthma. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 18092349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006 Apr;96(4):571-8.
Effect of animal contact and microbial exposures on the prevalence of
atopy and asthma in urban vs rural children in India.
Vedanthan PK, Mahesh PA, Vedanthan R, Holla AD, Liu AH.
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, USA.
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors, including microbial exposures and
close animal contact, are implicated in the lower prevalence of asthma
and allergy in rural vs urban children. OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the
prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, and atopic sensitization in
rural and urban children in India; (2) differences in microbial and
animal exposures in these locales; and (3) whether differences in
environmental exposures account for the different rates of asthma and
atopy in these locales. METHODS: One child from each of 50 urban
(Mysore) and 50 rural (Vinobha) households in southern India was
randomly selected for data analysis. Allergy, asthma, health,
environment, and lifestyle information was obtained using a
questionnaire and household inspections. Atopy was determined via skin
prick testing for common allergens. Endotoxin content was measured in
house dust samples. RESULTS: Children from rural vs urban areas had
lower prevalences of self-reported asthma (8% vs 30%; P = .005),
rhinitis (22% vs 42%; P = .03), and atopic sensitization (36% vs 58%; P
= .03). Higher median dust endotoxin loads were found in rural vs urban
households (6.50 x 10(4) EU/m2 vs 1.27 x 10(4) EU/m2; P < .001). In
multivariate analysis, close indoor animal contact (adjusted odds ratio
[OR] 0.2; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.9), outdoor animal
contact (OR, 0.3; 90% CI, 0.1-0.8), and exclusive breastfeeding for at
least 6 months (OR, 0.2; 90% CI, 0.1-0.5) were associated with lower
atopic sensitization; mud flooring was associated with lower
self-reported wheezing (OR, 0.1; 90% CI, 0.02-1.0).
****CONCLUSION: Children in India who live with close animal contact and
mud flooring and who were exclusively breastfed in infancy are less
likely to develop asthma, rhinitis, and atopic sensitization.****
PMID: 16680928 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Perhaps a piece of sod from another area of your garden.
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