They sell plugs that will do just this. I bought one for my Bosch washing
machine. 220 plug with the blades turned 90 degrees from normal and a normal
120 for the dryer. It was nice to find because I thought I would have to add
a box to get 220 to the new washer.
*If* there is a neutral wire at the 220 outlet, yes you can. You
haven't given enough information here to give you a straight answer.
You might have to install a fused outlet to limit the current (see link
below) for instance, you want to tap 110V for a washing machine off the
220V dryer outlet if it has 4 wire. It's a really bad solution because
you will trip the breaker every time you run the dryer on a high heat
cycle and run the washer at the same time.
However, let's say you want to replace an electric range with a gas
range, and there is no 110V outlet for the igniter. This might actually
make sense -- but if it's only a 3 wire circuit you'll need to convert
it to 110V at the breaker box. (You'll end up with a 20A 110V outlet
wired with 8 guage wire) If it's a 4-wire range outlet, install
something like this next to it and get your electrician friend to tap
into one side of the range circuit:
It's probably easier and cheaper to just run a new circuit and do it right.
If it's a 220V outlet for an air conditioner, and you are installing a
110V unit, you just replace the receptacle with a 110V and rewire it at
the breaker to give one hot and one neutral wire instead of 2 hots.
(people do this one all the time)
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