The New Guinea cannibal tribes? how disappointing, but thank you for the
information anyway, although I do have to tell you there are better
information sources than the
Amazon book buying hype, unless you are getting paid for hits.
It didn't do cattle farmers much good. They took all the flack but were
not responsible for it. Animals died a particularly nasty death as did a
few very unlucky humans. Most could be traced back to cheap and nasty
mechanically recovered meat characteristic of your average junk food
vendor. Some real cuts of meat also ceased to exist as a result.
And all to make a few extra bucks for the feed companies by cutting
corners on the processing.
It was bad enough that living in the UK during the relevant period
prevented you giving blood in countries nominally free from BSE/nv-CJD.
The infectious agent was just too hard to detect in the early days.
Prions seem to be rather potent infective agents if they get the chance.
It is also potentially a very slow burning infection in humans so it is
possible that the damage already done will only show up around 2030.
It isn't clear whether they created a new disease or massively amplified
the transmission rate of an existing low level illness by forcing
ruminants to become cannibals and adding diseased meat into the mix.
I suspect if they had restricted this cavalier practice of putting
noxious junk into animal food to pigs there would not have been a
problem. Omnivores are better able to cope with a dodgy diet. Infected
cows died a horrible death which did at least alert people to the
problem. It only really made the news when it got too common to ignore.
The official view at first was that it was scrapie which was the
equivalent disease in sheep didn't pose a problem for humans. That was
fine until people started to die of nv-CJD. I would still like to see
some of the cowboys that relaxed the rules prosecuted. YMMV
No, it has been definitely identified as different from scrapie,
in being more easily transmitted across species and (if I recall)
rather nastier even in sheep.
It was also due to a couple of whistle-blowers. The government was
doing its usual (attempting to scapegoat them) when the publicity
started, and they backpedalled as fast as only Whitehall can. If it
hadn't been for them, we would have had an extra couple of years
before any action was taken.
Sorry. I didn't mean to imply that it was scrapie. More that it was a
pre-existing condition in just a handful of cows either arising
spontaneously or as a very low level rare infection that stayed below
the radar. If a vet only saw one case in a lifetime for instance.
It was only when we provided a means for the infection to spread rapidly
that exponential growth in the number of cases occurred.
I wonder if Gummers granddaughter still eats burgers?
After that total fiasco it was no surprise that government statements
about GM food being safe to eat were not believed.
Hendra virus (formerly called equine morbillivirus) is a member of the
Nipah virus, also a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is related but
not identical to Hendra virus.
Funny, when I read this page, it says,"Two of the three human patients
infected with Hendra virus died (Australia). During the Nipah virus
disease outbreak in 1998-99 (Malaysia and Singapore), 257 patients were
infected with the virus. About 40% of those patients who entered
hospitals with serious nervous disease died from the illness."
"For the first time in the history of the world, every human being is
No, I not no expert scientist or nothing nor read scientific papers. I
am just a gardener. But I see a few articles on the web that says if you
maintain a hot heap then it will kill pathogens.. If you run a cold heap
then these things are not killed off with the heat. Hence my concern.
If the bins were more like 6'x6'x6' they would probably hold enough heat
in the bulk material to become hot. I only turn mine once to put the
edges into the middle.
A hot heap works a bit faster and it is only really hot for a few days.
Mainly it helps to kill off weed seeds. My heaps go hot when I put a few
cubic metres of grass cuttings on them in one go. I have had one up to
smouldering. If you can add enough of anything to the heap at once with
the right amount of water you will get it hot for a while. The horse
dung will act OK as an accelerant, but if you want something that will
encourage a hot heap then the proprietory mix Garotta (sp?) seems to
work as well as anything.
I wouldn't worry about pathogens from horse dung either. And if you have
access to plenty of straw and horse manure it is worth fermenting some
to make your own mushroom compost. I might worry about that persistent
residual pesticide that has been causing trouble in winter hay though.
If there is nothing to kill off, then why worry. Many compost heaps
have diseased plant material that can harm plants. There is a concern
then. But non-caninvore and non-omnivore waste is not a major concern.
The hydrogen sulfide, methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide given off by
fresh manure are concerns in hot or cold compost heaps. Horse manure is
a solid waste excluded from federal regulation because it neither
contains significant amounts of listed hazardous components, nor
exhibits hazardous properties. C. tetani is reportedly found in equine
manure, but does not represent a source of significant public health
risk. Many common equine helminths (worms, bots, etc.) are pathogenic
to domestic animals but are not pathogenic to man. Generally speaking,
horse guts do not contain the 120 viruses and constituents of concern in
human, dog and cat feces (carnivores and omnivores). Most viruses with
zoonotic potential (animals infecting humans) are not found in horse
Pathogens of primary concern are waterborne microorganisms that usually
follow ingestion pathways into the body. Transmission can also occur
through direct oral-fecal exposure. These include Cryptosporidium parvum
, Giardia duodenalis, Campylocbacter spp, Salmonella spp., pathogenic
strains of E. coli, andYersinia spp. By far, C. parvum and Giardia are
the two of most concern because they have very low thresholds of
infectious dose. People infected by these organisms may exhibit a range
of symptoms from mild abdominal discomfort to death, especially among
the very young, elderly, and people with immunologically suppressed
systems. Neither of these organisms can be destroyed easily with
traditional water treatment processes.
So if you use horse manure, make sure the people that gathered it washed
their hands after using a toilet. They and their pets are much more of
a concern than the horse manure itself.
Pardon my spam deterrent; send email to firstname.lastname@example.org
Cheers, Steve Henning in Reading, PA USA - http://rhodyman.net
Don't know anything about this hot or cold compost business. We don't even
have a bin, just a compost heap at the back of our garden (it's sort of
contained by two sides of a rotting fence and a neighbour's stone outhouse)
and have been 'mining' this from the bottom for the last 25 years. We dig
it out from the bottom, then riddle it through a garden sieve, and use it on
our garden and allotments. Everything organic, such as meat and veg bits
from the kitchen goes into it, as well as dead bodies of rats and mice our
cats catch, and feathers of pheasants we find on the road and prepare for
the table, and poo and stuff we find in the garden. Also any other
unpleasant thing, like food that has gone off. We cover the top of the heap
with grass cuttings when we mow the lawn, and just keep piling the stuff on.
It seems to take about 3 years for the stuff at the top to de-percolate down
to the bottom. We collect horse manure and pile it in heaps nearby and when
it rots down enough we shovel it onto the garden and allotments.
I haven't heard of anyone getting sick from using home-made compost.
WARNING: over the last year or so, horse manure is to be avoided, because
apparently horse owners and farmers are using a new toxic weedkiller which
the horses ingest in the field when grazing, and it passes through their gut
and if you use the manure, it will kill your plants off. I understand that
this will be discussed on Friday in Gardener's Question Time, BBC4,
Horse dung hot,
horse dung cold,
horse dung in the heap 9 weeks old.
I run horses and use their manure in the garden all the time. There are
precious few if any pathogens in horse manure that will harm a human. I
know people who spend their lives shovelling dung daily without a mask and
it does them no harm.
Hot composting is to kill weed seeds, microorganisms are your friends.
At the risk of sounding like a nouveau Victor Meldrew, what's gone
wrong with us?
I had my hands in fresh horse manure a few months ago when I helped a
friend muck out his stables.
My dog was there and thoroughly enjoyed eating horse poo - don't ask
- it's a dog thing. I did try to stop him but that was only a bit more
effective as stopping a gourmand access to free cakes and chocolate ;)
I'm up to date with tetanus and have been since about 5 years old.
What's the problem? Anyone gardening should be... more likely to get
it from soil than horses. Or rusty nails. Stood on them when I was a
kid, and Kate Humble's older brother (yes, she of Springwatch) threw
an electric fencing stake javelin-style at me by accident once and I
still have the scar on my knee.
Immune systems need to be built up, or grown: you won't get one unless
you do the work.
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