Flat roof question/shingles

I would like to ask a question related to shingles, roof pitch and
options. My neighbor has a house with mulitple levels. Some roof
sections are shingled, some are flat. The problem is that while the
flat portions are covered in what appears to be a black tar paper of
sorts, it does not appear to be well-sealed or extended to promote
water flow into the gutters. In some cases, this material is
practically turned up diverting the water from the gutters over the
side and onto the flashing. In others, water is "gripping" the edge
and flowing between the gutter/fascia.
I understand that shingles require a certain pitch, so he cannot
simply shingle over the rest of the area like the steep roof section.
Here are a few pictures:
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The first pic shows the "upper" level right corner of the roof and the
gutter. You cannot see the water in the pic, but you can see that the
roofing material bends up just as it reaches the gutter and directs
the water over the side edge.
The second pic shows a similar right-edge picture of the lower level
addition. It was misting when we took this picture, so you can see
the rain from before has collected on the edge and is not flowing into
the gutter below the edge. Again, instead, it is flowing over the
right edge onto the flashing.
The third pic, although a bit blurry, is from just in front of the
upper, unshingled roof and shows the left side of the roof that is
shingled. There is no problem with water not flowing properly into
this gutter. It should be noted that all the gutters and roof are
relatively new (gutters recently installed, roof was redone a few
years ago and is in good shape).
The fourth shows the same corner as in pic 1 from a little higher
perspective. It also shows some spots where the roofing material
appears to need some tar applied to seal edges and you can see little
troughs along the front edge similar to the lower-level shot where
water is sitting rather than draining.
Due to the relatively low pitch, shingling appears to be out of the
question. I was thinking that we could re-apply tar or something to
sure the seams, but wanted to ask whether there were other
suggestions. Would a bead of caulk along the right side direct the
water toward the gutter and be sufficient to at least keep the water
moving forward? Is the standing water detrimental to the health of
the roof (sitting on this paper) or is it not-ideal, but not something
to require a great deal of concern?
Any suggestions are appreciated.
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Without looking at the pics, I can tell you that a roof's purpose is to drain water, and quickly. If not, you've got trouble. Tom Work at your leisure!
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