"...shall have those contacts connected to an equipment grounding
"Exception No. 2: Replacement receptacles as permitted by 406.3-D"
replacement of receptacles shall comply with D-1,2,and 3 as applicable
"Non-Grounding Type Receptacles. Where attachment to an equipment
grounding conductor does not exist in the receptacle enclosure, the
installation shall comply with D-3-a, D-3-b, or D-3-c."
406.3-D-3-b allows GFCIs to be used. The GFCI ground terminal is not
allowed to be extended to downstream receptacles
406.3-D-3 allows grounding receptacles to be used where downstream from
a GFCI. A ground is not allowed to be connected between the receptacles.
OK; since we're clarifying, lets be a tad more accuate. I only add this for
clarification, no other reason. Many homes have a mix of such 2 and 3 wire
installations and it's easy to misunderstand some things.
A GFCI is for "safety", not people. Kind of minor on the surface, but
important in the altogether. Also, lack of a ground for equipment that
needs it -could- lead to lethal shock situations where under a single fault
condition it could lead to anything from shock to fire.
Well, not from "within the device" but from any point in the entire circuit
on the Load side of the GFCI; wire, connections, equipments, etc..
Sufficient leakage anywhere will trip the GFCI. It simply measures and
compares hot/neutral current, as you said.
If there is anything anywhere, not just within the device, that causes a
differential, the gfci will trip.
NEC definitely recommends AGAINST doing so, and requires the markings. In
addition, NEC is not the final word; NEC is only minimum requirements. The
local Code Enforcement Office will have the final say on whether a 3-prong
outlet can be used without an earth ground connection. Here such 2-wire
methods with 3-wire outlets etc. are specifically verboten in the kitchen,
bathroom and outbuildings. Many people forget that it's the local codes that
must be satisfied; the NEC may be but one component of the electrical
The NEC/local codes would reall only come into the picture if it was new
work. e.g. when I added a ckt, all they checked was the ckt, and nothing in
the rest of the house. Some localities however insist that if you touch the
wiring at all the whole building has to be brought up to code. It varies all
over the map.
Nah, no serious corrections were needed. Just had time to do a little
further clarification, so did.
Newsgroups are great places to get assistance.
But always verify important information with
Yes, since the test circuit is internal to the GFCI and includes an
approximately 15,000 ohm resistor that connects between the device's
hot and ground leads when the TEST button is pressed.
GFCIs pass the hot and neutral AC lines through the center of a
transformer coil. Normally the currents in the wires are equal and
opposite, resulting in no current flow in the secondary of this
transformer, but when a ground fault occurs, the wires will not carry
equal current, and that's why GFCI operation does not require a ground
connection. In fact GFCIs are required to provide protection even
without that ground.
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