On Thu, 5 Apr 2007 17:52:32 +0100, Janet Baraclough
Regardless, Janet. The pesticide pyrethrum comes from the flower not
the foliage and smell has absolutely nothing to do with its
insecticidal properties in that it kills insects indiscriminately.
Kill is kill. I don't kill knowingly. And no, I don't eat meat
The plants themselves don't "kill", only a concentrated extract does.
The plants make themselves unattractive to insects by producing it. I
have feverfew in my garden and it has similar properties, it is fun to
see bees bend their flight path to stay away from its flowers.
No, the flowers are crushed up and ground into powder and the entire
flower is the pyrethrum which is not only poison to insects, but to
most mammals, amphibians, and reptiles including birds (descendants of
AND it is very poisonous to fish!!!! and nearly everything in water. I cannot
anything like this near my ponds. Ingrid
List Manager: Puregold Goldfish List at
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Solve the problem, dont waste energy finding who's to blame
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Zone 5 next to Lake Michigan
Oh for sure fish are very sensitive to most anything. I am no longer
using any pesticides, no killing. I have so much wildlife in my yard
that the balance is incredible to me. It's interesting how when you
leave it alone and let it do what it wants to do, how well it all
works out. But, one caveat, I like a messy garden with some low level
order. The order in the chaos, yeah, that's it.
On Fri, 06 Apr 2007 13:52:36 GMT, firstname.lastname@example.org wrote:
The oils are contained in the under developed seed casings, which are
found in the flower head. The strength of the pyrethrum used will be
more than likely under 1%. Which allows it to be used around mammals,
amphibians, birds etc.
of the Compositae (daisies, marigolds, etc.) in U.S. gardens probably produce
Probably is hardly definitive. In all other searches I found
references to marigolds being used for repellent properties, but not
because they produce pyrethrins. It's a very thin link if there's one
at all; it's hardly worth mentioning.
Ann, gardening in Zone 6a
South of Boston, Massachusetts
If you would care to read it, you will find that the research crops of
Compositae such as marigolds etc (leaves and stems), WERE found to be a
source of the same compound. Research crops are grown, and harvested,
in controlled conditions, not gardens. Garden plants were not examined
in the laboratory. Therefore, the research report can only suggest, that
the same plants grown in gardens, will PROBABLY contain the same
compounds that were found in the research-crops.
Marigolds are a member of the family which are the natural source of
pyrethrum, which was marketed as an effective insecticide. The pungent
smell-quotient in marigold leaves, is the pyrethrum, so ones with the
smelliest leaves, have the most insecticide.
In the UK, gardeners who grow tomatoes and basil in glasshouses,
often grow marigolds in there too, as a sacrifice plant to kill
On Sat, 31 Mar 2007 19:22:57 +0100, Janet Baraclough
Wrong. C. coccineum is NO relation to Tagetes. You are also wrong
about it being the "leaves, is the pyrethrum." Pyrethrum come from a
Chrysanthamum coccineum plant and it is the crushed flowers where the
poison is, not the foliage.
The active chemical occurs in several members of the compositae
family, including, chrysanthemum and marigold. See
which is much too long to reproduce here, but here's a snippet
"Industrially, pyrethrum extracts are obtained by extraction of dried
pyrethrum flowers with hexane followed by dewaxing and decolorization to
yield a mixture containing approximately 20% pyrethrins and 80% inert
plant materials or solvents. This technical extract is registered with
the Environmental Protection Agency and is a standard item of commerce
used for formulating numerous end products. Flower production is
centered in Kenya and surrounding countries, with some production being
attempted in Tasmania and New Guinea. While pyrethrum flowers are not
grown commercially in the United States, some of the Compositae
(daisies, marigolds, etc.) in U.S. gardens probably produce these
compounds. There has been an effort to cultivate C. cinerariaefolium in
Oregon and Arizona but this is not yet a viable commercial source. "
On Sun, 1 Apr 2007 00:21:19 +0100, Janet Baraclough
All this says is that no form of Tagetes has been formulated as a
viable source, so you, me, nobody anywhere has ever used any form of
Tagetes to kill insects. Pyrethrum FLOWERS is where the compound is
found, not the leaves. Your post proves it.
Yes, and marigolds are used as companion plants with tomatoes, and
they do not contain pyrethrum.
The main point is that they deter certain insects that like tomatoe
Marigolds are not an insecticide. They are a deterrent.
dancing in my mind,
gloria in hemlock hollow
(only the iguanas know for sure)
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