It's the first time I am making cider, I have juiced my apples and added the yeast. The first couple of nights the airlock was going nuts, bubbles every 10 to 20 seconds now it has slowed down a lot to bubbles every 1 to 2 minutes, is this right?
This web site won't let me edit a post more than once for some reason.
So, the following is how I meant to revise that last post:
You won't hear the fermentation in the primary fermenter because of the
foam at the surface. You have to wait for the foam to start breaking up
before you'll see bubbles in the open areas of juice and hear a
"fiiizzzzz" sound coming from all the bubbles breaking at the surface of
You don't want to add sugar while your juice is in a secondary fermenter
(the big bottle) because the foam that's produced will overwhelm the air
lock and you'll have foam coming out of it instead of CO2 bubbles.
So, if you want to fix this batch of cider, sterilize a plastic pail
large enough to hold your entire batch, siphon your apple juice into the
pail and stir in anywhere from 4 to 8 pounds of sugar for every 5
gallons of juice you're fermenting. Then cover the pail with plastic
and tie the plastic down loosely around the pail so that the CO2 can
escape. I like to use clear plastic garbage bags because their
transparancy allows you to see what's going on inside the primary
fermenter (the pail). (Often, though, the fog that forms on the inside
of the plastic makes it hard to see what's happening without the use of
a strong light.
Within 24 hours you should have foam at the surface of your juice. Once
the foam starts to break and you see open areas of liquid juice at the
surface, then siphon the juice into your secondary fermenter and use
your air lock. You might wait and extra couple of days after you see
the first open areas at the surface of the juice. That's because the
sooner you transfer to the secondary fermenter (the big bottle) the
greater the liklihood that the amount of CO2 produced will overwhelm the
air lock and cause foam to spew out of it. Also, when you siphon a
liquid, you lower the pressure on it causing CO2 to come out of
solution. So, after "racking" or siphoning your cider into the
secondary fermenter (the big bottle) you'll notice that the fermentation
appears to have stopped. It hasn't stopped. It's just that CO2 came
out of solution with the siphoning, and the juice is no longer saturated
with CO2, so the CO2 that is produced by fermentation is going into
solution into the juice. Once the juice is once again saturated with
CO2, continued fermentation will cause your air lock to start bubbling
Don't bottle until the fermentation is effectively finished. Otherwise
the fermentation that continues inside the bottles will result in your
cider being under pressure, and in a worst case horror scenario, that
could be a little dangerous if someone dropped the bottle and it
Been a long time since I made wine but this is essentially the same
thing. You would judge final alcohol content by intial specific
gravity. I would use a wine yeast that was tolerant to so many ppm
sulfur dioxide to knock out other bad yeasts. Usually run primary
fermentation in a large covered food safe covered garbage type can then
secondary slow fermentation in a jar with a bubbler. When bubbles stop,
it is safe to bottle. Beer is made similarly except you brew to a
certain specific gravity leaving enough sugar to ferment in the bottle
and carbonate or let go flat and add sugar.
Also made root beer for kids. You mix extract with sugar and yeast,
immediately bottle and after a day or two refrigerate to stop fermentation.
Well you understand the principle well enough, but you've got the idea
Napoleon Bonepart recognized the importance of wine to France's economy
and commissioned the emminent French scientist, Louis Pasteur, to find
out why some batches of wine would turn into vinegar. This was the
biggest scientific mystery of the 18th century, on par with our quest to
find black matter in the universe. Louis Pasteur that discovered that
several different types of natural yeasts grow on the surface of grapes,
and one kind will turn the sugar into acetic acid while the other kind
will turn sugar into alcohol.
Both kinds of yeast exist naturally on the grape's skin, and the vinegar
kills the wine yeast while the alcohol kills the acetic acid yeast, so
whichever yeast gets the upper hand at the beginning of fermentation
generally goes on to win the war and convert the grape juice to either
alcohol or acetic acid.
It was Camden tablets, named after the town of Camden in France where
Pasteur made this discovery, and Camden tablets are now what we call
sodium or potassium metabisulphate, which are the chemicals we use to
sterilize our equipment.
Pasteur's solution to the problem was to use sodium metabisulphate to
kill ALL of the wild yeast in the batch of stomped grapes, and then add
wine yeast, thereby ensuring that the batch would turn to wine, not
Wine yeast is not more tolerant of sulpher dioxide...
Wine yeast is more tolerant of alcohol, and will ferment to an alcohol
content of over 12 percent, and theoretically up to about 15 percent if
left for long enough. Beer yeast tops out at about 6 percent, or if
left long enough, about 8 percent.
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