Injecting alcohol into the joint will work if you can get enough in
there, but the steam method others have suggested works well also. But
too much steam can warp/damage the surrounding wood. I've heard of
wrapping everything around the joint with waterproof tape, but only if
you're going to refinish the chair anyway.
Intelligence is an experiment that failed - G. B. Shaw
If the objective is to try and reactivate the glue after repairing the
joint, then steam or heat is the way to go. I like using alcohol but that
causes the glue to denature and crystallize making it fail so the joint can
be disassembled. The residual glue must be then removed and fresh glue
added to reglue the joint.
You can make a simple steam injector with a teakettle (this was
something I saw in an old woodworking book).
three corks (A, B, C) (whichever is cork C needs to fit tightly into the
maybe a couple of feet of tubing (1/2" might work well),
a needle tip (large kind used for gluing or such),
Drill a hole in two corks (A and B) to fit the tube snug.
Drill a hole HALF way through the last cork (C) the same as the other corks.
Push tube through the cork A until enough protrudes to place cork C on
(both corks should touch). Push the tube into cork B (can push enough
through so it comes out the other side a little).
Place cork B into the spout of the teakettle. Insert the needle into
cord C so the steam flowing from the kettle through the tube can come
out the needle.
Now just drill a small hole in the joint large enough for the needle and
the steam should dissolve the bond.
The whole can be filled and sanded so it wont be noticed.
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