We had some serious ice dam issues last year so they were water spots.
This happens every few years depending on how much snow we get and
when. I've always used the oil-based spray cans (Kilz or Zinsser) and
they cover like magic. I expect the problem was trying to cover water
spots with a water-based sealer.
I contacted the Kilz people and they offered to replace my quart of
the latex with a gallon of the oil, but it wasn't worth jumping
through all their hoops (pictures of the can, the spots and receipts,
etc). I did find an old spray can of Kilz in the basement and it
covered in one coat. I suspect that any brand of latex sealer may have
trouble with water spots. I'll stick with oil in the future.
Just started to paint the water spot I had with 4 coats latex Kilz
(wall is latex paint) and now it's covered. I did mix it well but
perhaps didn't apply it thick enough (??) so hence the 4 coats. I'm
debating on applying a 5th coat for the heck of it. It only takes
about 4 minutes to paint the area so not a big deal. Biggest deal is
climbing the 4' step ladder with bad back ... bad balance. I manage
but it's a pain knowing in my younger days I would have laughed at
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