Your assuming again. Were did I say that the method I was suggesting
was to cord and plug connect the heating plant or the well pump? All
that is needed is a deep four square box, a switch by single receptacle
raised cover, a flanged inlet; and a single or double poled, double
Well we aren\'t no thin blue heroes and yet we aren\'t no blackguards to.
Another thought since it's been mentioned is furnaces and well pumps.
I'm not aware of any code requirement that they be hardwired. You can
easily and inexpensively make them cord connected devices with dedicated
outlets, allowing you to readily connect them via extension cords to
I WAS going to do just that when we replaced our furnace last February.
However, since the low temp during the outage was -8F, we were in a bit of a
hurry to get it back up-and-running, so I "hard-wired" it as before.
I suspect that, during a protracted outage, I could easily and quickly attach
a plug to the input and be warm again.
Furnaces have always been required to be hardwired per (2002) NEC
422.16(A), and have a disconnect at the furnace if it is not within
sight of the distribution panel that supplies the circuit. Also, on
old furnaces that have the old combo fuse/switches, the fuse _is_ the
overload protection for the motor. Installing a cord cap and flexible
cord on that equipment would leave the furnace motor without overload
protection when it is plugged into the generator.
Is a furnace an electrical appliance? (422.1)
Are furnaces FREQUENTLY interchanged?
Are the fastening means and mechanical connections for furnaces
specifically designed to permit _ready_ removal for maintinance and
If you can answer the last two questions yes, then a flexible cord is
permitted on a furnace, even then it would have to come from the
factory with a flexible cord. Same reason for well pumps, water
Better yet, show me the code cite that says that they _don't_ have to
Quoted from 2002 NEC:
"422.16 Flexible Cords.
(A) General. Flexible cord shall be permitted (1) for the connection
of appliances to facilitate their FREQUENT interchange or to prevent
transmission of noise or vibration or (2) to facilitate the removal or
disconnection of appliances that are fastened in place, where the
fastening means and mechanical connections are SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED to
permit READY removal for maintenance or repair AND the appliance is
intended or identified for flexible cord connection."
Read: "or to prevent transmission of noise or vibration". That's all the
justification I need. And yes, any installation I have anything to do
with has plumbing unions and whatnot to facilitate easy removal as well.
It's not like you're wiring a primary crusher and its' accessory motors
in a mine. THAT would be a reason to use flexible cord. This thread
is already pervaded with misinformation and gerry rigging, don't add to
Why are millions of furnaces hard-wired? Why does Article 424 (Fixed
Electric Space-Heating Equipment), specifically, 424.19 Disconnecting
Means, make absolutely _no_ mention of using a flexible cord and cord
cap as a disconnecting means while other Articles in the NEC do allow a
flexible cord with a cord cap to be a disconnect for certain equipment?
Could it be because wiring a fixed space heating equipment with
flexible cord and a cord cap isn't even a consideration in the eyes of
Having 2 wires on a single breaker is a code violation unless the
breaker is rated for 2 wires - some SquardD ones are. It is not "highly
dangerous" and is very easy to fix by pigtailing as about everyone has said.
I have not heard of lubricating breakers. I very much doubt is possible
to lubricate breakers. If it is possible, it is probably a bad idea. The
whole thing smells like a scam.
A good site for general information on aluminum wire is:
Much of the information is derived from the Consumer Product Safety
Commission, which did a lot of work on aluminum wiring.
IMHO the best link is:
This is a paper writen by an engineer who did extensive testing of
aluminum connections for the CPSC, and includes many options for what to
do with aluminum wiring.
isnt pigtailing in the panel also a code violation?
I thought you had to either put each home run or branch circuit on its
on breaker OR have it made up in a J-box intead of taking to the panel
>Having 2 wires on a single breaker is a code violation unless the
Right, the panel is a listed enclosure where you can make splices. It's
more of a best practices thing since the panel tends to get crowded
anyway and having splices and pigtails in the panel just makes it that
I believe it is covered by NEC 312.8 - "Enclosures for switches or
overcurrent devices". Splices are allowed if the fill at any
cross-section is 75% or less.
Wires running through the enclosure are allowed if the fill at any
cross-section is 40% or less. An example would be if the panel ran out
of breakers, existing breakers could be removed to add a breaker for a
subpanel and the wires for the original breakers could be run through
the panel to the new subpanel.
The molded-case circuit breakers used for residential applications are
_sealed_, one cannot lubricate them. The only thing that one can do is
exercise them every 6 to 12 months or so, by turning them off and on
several times. If any are binding, they should be replaced because
they may not trip if/when called upon to perform under fault
conditions. Large circuit breakers, such as is found in large
commercial, industrial switchgear or utility substations are very
complex mechanisms and do require periodic maintainance and lubrication
by highly skilled factory approved people in a shop
environment......_not_ by some electrician out in the field.
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