Do I need a new furnace, or I am being sold the wrong thing?

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Can't imagine why the gas company is giving you five days to fix it, *UNLESS* it's a CO problem.
A gas furnace (like a gas HW heater) has a draft break between the outlet of the firebox and where the flue pipe takes the gasses into the chimney. If there is a blockage in the chimney (squirrel nest, dead birds, broken liner) that prevents the chimney from 'drawing', then some of the gasses coming out of the furnace will leak into the basement area. And that's a dangerous situation.
Did the gas company guy/gal put some probe in the flue or CO monitor and say, "You've got a backdraft problem."?? That may just mean the chimney is clogged with dead birds (they sometimes perch on the top of a chimney and then pass out from the CO2 and fall in). On the other hand, if the heat-exchanger 'bonnet' is cracked (force air units), it could be letting combustion gasses through to the house air being circulated.
A well tuned gas burner on the furnace won't generate very much CO, but it will still generate a lot of CO2. So a bad draw in the chimney that lets gasses into the house can be *DEADLY*. Get a CO monitor before you go to bed tonight (or turn the furnace off, but I know that ain't going to happen in this weather).
As far as high-efficiency, that can cost a bit more than an 80% furnace. But why go done that road when you're not even sure the furnace is where the problem is. Look for a chimney sweep or HVAC contractor that works with gas furnaces. A sweep can tell if the chimney's just clogged or if there is some major repair needed. If the problem can be fixed by a $100 cleaning of the chimney, you'd be way ahead. If the heat-exchanger is cracked, well that's a different story and you pretty much need a new furnace.
For a poorly insulated house that uses a lot of gas to heat, the difference between 80% and 95% can really add up. The only thing is high-efficiency units typically need a horizontal vent pipe installed through the footer to the outdoors. And a 'sump pump' or drain of some sort for the condensate. The cost to buy and install one can be quite a bit more than a conventional one.
And if you have a gas hot-water heater, you probably still need a chimney (although a narrower flue), so you can't just block that off. So if the chimney has a broken liner or something bad, you may *still* have to repair it for the hot-water heater (unless you want to replace that too). The difference in price between a conventional and high-efficiency may be more than the chimney repair.
Good Luck,
daestrom
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It's not unusual to have the gas company red tag a furnace that has a backdraft problem, as it's considered a serious safety issue and they would rather be safe than sorry. One time the gas company replaced my meter and then came in to relight the pilots. It was a very hot day in summer and the water heater is in the basement. They checked the WH for backdraft, and it failed. They red tagged it on the spot.

Then why are you surprised that the gas company gave him ONLY 5 days to fix it?

Usually they check for backdraft by holding a match or other smoke source near the diverter vent. If the smoke blowss away from the vent, it fails.
That may just mean the chimney is

Yes, and that's why the gas company says it should be fixed now.
Get a CO monitor before you go to

That's a very good idea. I have a CO monitor in the bedroom and another one in the basement.

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