Use of the term "clon" in horticulture

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Hello,
I recall from a horticulture book that I would have read around 1978 (how time flies!) that they used the term "clon" to mean a tree or other plant that's propagated by asexual reproduction. I think their examples were fruit trees and the like. The book, if I recall correctly, was a little out of date even then -- it might have been published around 1960.
I've searched the web for "clon" but I can't find the term at all (except in Spanish). I'm pretty sure I'm not imagining it. Does anyone else remember "clon"? Print references would be very helpful.
Thanks for your help, Robert Dodier
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Robert Dodier wrote:

I think you should be looking for "clone".
cheers,
Marj
--
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They mean clone, not clon. Any asexual reproduction results in a plant which is a clone of the parent being produced.
-
theoneflasehaddock
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The term is "clone" and basically just means taking a cutting to produce a clone of the original plant with the same genetics and attributes.
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Not always and not usually. Clone of plant matter is generally done by selective tissue culture. It's a bit different than taking a cutting.
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On 5/10/04 9:03 PM, in article snipped-for-privacy@4ax.com,

Nope - scientifically, to clone is to reproduce the parent plant exactly. Cuttings do just that, just as tissue culture does. Cheryl
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opined:

I said not always and not usually. I didn't say never. When new sports were found in our greenhouses, we'd do tissue culture clones to assure the differentiation was still evident in the cloned plant. If cuttings were taken of said sport, there are significant chances the plant can revert in characteristic. When cloned by tissue culture you are assured to have the sport perform as the original sport on the plant you took the culture of.
So, both are correct, but in the industry when something is asexually cloned it generally means it was reproduced by tissue culture to insure the anomaly.
Victoria
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Cuttings are ALWAYS genetically identical to the parent plant. The only way they would be different is if sexual reproduction is involved. Cuttings are not sexual reproduction.
When new sports were

Then it is controlled partially by either age of the plant, or conditions it is in, not pure genetics.
When cloned by tissue culture you are assured to have the

No, with cuttings you are assured to have it perform the same as the plant it came from. With tissue culture, you are assured to have it behave as a young clone (not a mature clone) of the plant it was taken from.

I don't know what you mean by anomaly, I assume you mean genetic conditions.
SOme conditions can't be preserved through tissue culture, because they are caused by the conditions the plant is in. Any genetic conditions are preserved through both cuttings and tissue culture of meristems.
-
theoneflasehaddock
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Victoria,
Your greenhouses must have been in bizarro land. The situation is exactly the opposite as you describe. A rooted cutting is a clone. Plants raised from rooted cuttings may show some form of "reversion" but the genetic material that underlies the reversion came from the mother plant. On the other hand, tissue culture can produce genetic changes that result in plants that are genetically different than their parents, hence NOT clones.
--beeky
escapee wrote:

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(snip)
beeky,
This depends how you define "clone". If you hold that the horticultural meaning is that a clone is the descendant of a single plant by vegetative reproduction, then a rooted cutting would be a clone.
If you hold that the horticultural meaning is that a clone is the descendant of a single plant by vegetative reproduction which has the identical genetic makeup and attributes as the parent, then specific tissue from the parent may be required. i.e. African Violet chimeras can't be cloned true to form through rooting leaf cuttings. Either suckers are induced, or specific tissue from the parent is used in the propagation of genetically true offspring.
Regards.
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A clone is genetically identical to the mother plant. The method of propagation does not factor into the definition.
In general, a rooted cutting is a clone. However, as you noted, there are examples of rooted cuttings that are not genetically identical.
--beeky
eclectic wrote:

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Chimeras have more than one genotype (genetic makeup), and challenge what we generally consider to be a horticultural clone. A descendant of a chimera may contain the identical genetic makeup of the parent plant, but depending on how the "clone" was propagated, its attributes may be unstable. I think that was Victoria's point with regard to sports, and why the industry uses tissue culture to ensure the anomaly is passed on reliably.
Regards.
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Then please explain to us how a cutting can change the genetic material of the plant, so that it won't be a clone.
-
theoneflasehaddock
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the
It can't.
Many cultivars that have been propagated clonally for years may eventually lose their vigor when they become infected with viruses due to unsanitary propagation techniques or infestation of pathogens by insects.
Variegates and other chimeras can occur when the clonally propagated material are exposed to mutagens in the environment or are deliberately made to mutate with the use of chemicals.
opined:

produce a

the
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You all could read the articles that were cited and then resume you argument.
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Or not bother and move on to someting else!

argument.
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a ya! done
opined:

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On 11 May 2004 12:42:18 GMT, snipped-for-privacy@aol.comfuckoff (theoneflasehaddock) opined:

You are not "cloning" when you do that. You are propagating by cutting. There is a scientific difference and the process is entirely different. Cloning takes whatever sport of whatever plant you are using and reproduces it's exact properties, while a cutting can revert.
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probably the largest use of clonal cuttings in the world is in the Tea industry in Sri Lanka and India. Hundreds of thousands of tea shoot cuttings are taken from selected mother bushes and planted in nurseries for rooting. after rooting they are transferred in to small ploythene nursery bags and nurtured for about one year till they have develped into 12 inch plants. These plants are then planted out in the field at about 15000 plants per hectare. A ten hectare planting will therefore need about 150,000 plants and Sri Lanka plants about 5000 hectares each year.
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The original word was "clon." I don't know when it was proposed. I know this because I just happened to pick up a volume of the journal "Science" from the 1920's or so when I was looking for something in the library, and I was flipping through it and I came across a small paragraph entitled "on the use of the word 'clon' in horticulture. The author was writing to suggest adding an "e" to the word because in english the long "o" sound is indicated by adding an "e" at the end of the word. Search the journal "Science" around the 1920's and you should come across the article.
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