Cognitive celery and peppers - LONG

With apologies for length, here is information that might interest anyone concerned about "cognitive deficits" for themselves or loved ones.
Persephone
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     http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05 / 080520094115.htm     
Plant Flavonoid In Celery And Green Peppers Found To Reduce Inflammatory Response In The Brain
A plant compound found in abundance in celery and green peppers can disrupt a key component of the inflammatory response in the brain.
ScienceDaily (May 23, 2008) — Researchers at the University of Illinois report that a plant compound found in abundance in celery and green peppers can disrupt a key component of the inflammatory response in the brain. The findings have implications for research on aging and diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis.
Inflammation can be a blessing or a blight. It is a critical part of the body's immune response that in normal circumstances reduces injury and promotes healing. When it goes awry, however, the inflammatory response can lead to serious physical and mental problems.
Inflammation plays a key role in many neurodegenerative diseases and also is implicated in the cognitive and behavioral impairments seen in aging.
The new study looked at luteolin (LOO-tee-OH-lin), a plant flavonoid known to impede the inflammatory response in several types of cells outside the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to determine if luteolin could also reduce inflammation the brain, said animal sciences professor and principal investigator Rodney Johnson.
"One of the questions we were interested in is whether something like luteolin, or other bioactive food components, can be used to mitigate age-associated inflammation and therefore improve cognitive function and avoid some of the cognitive deficits that occur in aging," Johnson said.
The researchers first studied the effect of luteolin on microglia. These brain cells are a key component of the immune defense. When infection occurs anywhere in the body, microglia respond by producing inflammatory cytokines, chemical messengers that act in the brain to orchestrate a whole-body response that helps fight the invading microorganism.
This response is associated with many of the most obvious symptoms of illness: sleepiness, loss of appetite, fever and lethargy, and sometimes a temporary diminishment of learning and memory. Neuroinflammation can also lead some neurons to self-destruct, with potentially disastrous consequences if it goes too far.
Graduate research assistant Saebyeol Jang studied the inflammatory response in microglial cells. She spurred inflammation by exposing the cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of many common bacteria.
Those cells that were also exposed to luteolin showed a significantly diminished inflammatory response. Jang showed that luteolin was shutting down production of a key cytokine in the inflammatory pathway, interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effects of luteolin exposure were dramatic, resulting in as much as a 90 percent drop in IL-6 production in the LPS-treated cells.
"This was just about as potent an inhibition as anything we had seen previously," Johnson said.
But how was luteolin inhibiting production of IL-6?
Jang began by looking at a class of proteins involved in intracellular signaling, called transcription factors, which bind to specific "promoter" regions on DNA and increase their transcription into RNA and translation into proteins.
Using electromobility shift assays, which measure the binding of transcription factors to DNA promoters, Jang eventually determined that luteolin inhibited IL-6 production by preventing activator protein-1 (AP-1) from binding the IL-6 promoter.
AP-1 is in turn activated by JNK, an upstream protein kinase. Jang found that luteolin inhibited JNK phosphorylation in microglial cell culture. The failure of the JNK to activate the AP-1 transcription factor prevented it from binding to the promoter region on the IL-6 gene and transcription came to a halt.
To see if luteolin might have a similar effect in vivo, the researchers gave mice luteolin-laced drinking water for 21 days before injecting the mice with LPS.
Those mice that were fed luteolin had significantly lower levels of IL-6 in their blood plasma four hours after injection with the LPS. Luteolin also decreased LPS-induced transcription of IL-6 in the hippocampus, a brain region that is critical to spatial learning and memory.
The findings indicate a possible role for luteolin or other bioactive compounds in treating neuroinflammation, Johnson said.
"It might be possible to use flavonoids to inhibit JNK and mitigate inflammatory reactions in the brain," he said. "Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 are very well known to inhibit certain types of learning and memory that are under the control of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is also very vulnerable to the insults of aging," he said. "If you had the potential to decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines in the brain you could potentially limit the cognitive deficits that result."
The study appeared recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Adapted from materials provided by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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wrote:

"Thus, luteolin may be useful for mitigating neuroinflammation."
No human studies but I like celery and green peppers even red ones. Wonder what chilies do?
Bill
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_medicine#Egyptian_medicine>
Just interesting found in looking about due to your post. ............
1: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 19. [Epub ahead of print] Links
Luteolin reduces IL-6 production in microglia by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and activation of AP-1.
Jang S, Kelley KW, Johnson RW. Division of Nutritional Sciences.
Luteolin, a flavonoid found in high concentrations in celery and green pepper, has been shown to reduce production of proinflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages, fibroblasts, and intestinal epithelial cells. Because excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines by activated brain microglia can cause behavioral pathology and neurodegeneration, we sought to determine whether luteolin also regulates microglial cell production of a prototypic inflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Pretreatment of primary murine microlgia and BV-2 microglial cells with luteolin inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6 production at both the mRNA and protein levels. To determine how luteolin inhibited IL-6 production in microglia, EMSAs were performed to establish the effects of luteolin on LPS-induced binding of transcription factors to the NF-kappaB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) sites on the IL-6 promoter. Whereas luteolin had no effect on the LPS-induced increase in NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, it markedly reduced AP-1 transcription factor binding activity. Consistent with this finding, luteolin did not inhibit LPS-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha but inhibited JNK phosphorylation. To determine whether luteolin might have similar effects in vivo, mice were provided drinking water supplemented with luteolin for 21 days and then they were injected i.p. with LPS. Luteolin consumption reduced LPS-induced IL-6 in plasma 4 h after injection. Furthermore, luteolin decreased the induction of IL-6 mRNA by LPS in hippocampus but not in the cortex or cerebellum. Taken together, these data suggest luteolin inhibits LPS-induced IL-6 production in the brain by inhibiting the JNK signaling pathway and activation of AP-1 in microglia. Thus, luteolin may be useful for mitigating neuroinflammation.
PMID: 18490655 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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If Michael Pollan is wrong, there are going to be a lot of premature deaths in the world, but so far I got the faith. One of his tenets is nutritionism is bad for us. Nutritionism is where scientists look at a food, one ingredient at a time, as if the rest of the food wasn't there. As a result, consumers, us, go out looking for low fat, high fiber, omega-3s, and, in the case of processed foods, get ripped off. Undoubtedly, luteolin is an interesting chemical but I think Pollan would say to look at the traditional diets of those who eat celery and/or peppers. If the people who eat the diet are of good health, and if you are from a similar ancestral back ground, that diet may indeed be healthy for you. But ingredient shopping isn't the wisest way to shop.
I'm not trying to rain on your parade, just present another point of view. I'm sure if a hole is seen in my statement, I'll be hearing about it, maybe even get a discussion. Of course, I could always hold-forth on the subject of President Monkey Smirk;o))
Bill, you read the book "in Defense", what was your impression?
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Billy
Bush Behind Bars
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Billy you are a pain in the ass in a nice way.
Seems we always look for small parts of our diets to fix us. I'd go further and suggest that the
But this song play intrudes.. Sensation 5:07 Bryan Ferry Boys and Girls Rock
Implication,, You folks got me trying to read David Bohm again.
Wholeness and the implicate order. Outside and inside not one not two
My quest for health centers on having my children not suffer too much from my mental illness. I think ww1 and ww2 did a number on humanity.
Just Like Tom Thumb's Blues 3:51 Bryan Ferry Dylanesque Rock
Dance as a way out seems to matter more all the time. Movement in space and perhaps no future rehab.
The Circles Makers 5:13 Chinmaya Dunster And The Celtic Ragas Band Karma Circles
Bill making dinner for us now.
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Oh lordie, this is a keeper and sig line for sure........thank you Bill. I've no time right now, I'm cooking as well....I'm on the honor system....Lovey is gone for a few hours to visit her Mom and I have been left with certain tasks to accomplish several dishes to prepare for tomorrow and I shall do this. Family coming tomorrow.
Charlie, going back to the kitchen, still chuckling.....
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Oh, we be a frightening group says I, who just returned from the vegetable stand and the meat market. Still have the smell of strawberries on my fingers. Now I have to put the groceries away and start prep-ing dinner. But when I come back, I'm gonna be in a buggering state of mind. Grrr
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Billy
Bush Behind Bars
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Grrrrr...says Bingo the Philosper Dog. :-)
Smell of strawbabies on your fingers and likey a red stain on your lips! ;-)
Isn't this grand....two Bills and a Charlie all on kitchen duty. Kitchen "work" is one of my most favoritist things.
Lovey took food down to my MIL tonite on account of the fact the my FIL is an absolute maroon about the house. Cannot (read most likely...will not) fix anything other than hot dogs and peanut butter on toast.
I finished my appointed tasks and food prep and household chores, along with the other duties that are required here.....Charlie be *Bushed*...heh heh.
Gonna don me headlamp and head to the garden and check it out and see what needs doing before I retire. BTW...energizer headlamp, 2 red LEDs and 4 white LEDs....gooood piece of garden equipment....3 AAAs and good for fitty hours they claim. 14 bucks.
Another BTW.....I flipped on the telly tonite and apparently, like it matters to me really, Clinton apparently drilled holes in her head, packed it full of that plastic stuff I aint' gonna mention here, and hit the button. Amused me to no end.
I also saw Bob Barr is giving the repugnicans fits since he is getting on the ballot in states now. Bwahahahah.......one of their own turns agin 'em. So called Ralph factor in reverse now.
Anyhoo........you have a wunnerful weekend and I'll catch up witcha sumtime or an-udder.
Yootoo, OtherBill!
Charlie
"All are lunatics, but he who can analyze his delusions is called a philosopher." ~~Ambrose Bierce
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I got ribs and a chicken in the refrigerator, mesquite charcoal, and hickory chips, so my barbecuin' for he weekend is set. I still need to make a run to the local fruit stand, as I'm down to my last lime. Maybe pick up some artichokes while I'm there. The CSA has ruined me for store bought salad, which seems all limp and soft now. Need to get my Golden Bantam corn in this week-end. I started it in trays. And then I need to get another tray started. I put a plastic dome over my peanuts and they are doing very well. Makes me think I should do the same for my runt tomatoes, which aren't doing much.
Maybe one of these days we can have a conversation about Pollan and his theories but Bill was the only person I know who had read the book. I'm about 2/3 through it and I notice that when he says ingredient shopping, he almost always means prepared foods. It is a nagging problem for me because ingredients in processed foods can be misleading but in a whole food? Maybe all will come clear as I finish the book. It is interesting that people who raised cows developed an enzyme to deal with lactose, and people raised with certain grains (historically) developed ways of accessing the nutrients in them. And then there is the whole thing about fats that proves to be untrue, except for trans-fats (deadly stuff) and whether cholesterol causes heart attacks or is merely a symptom. Much to chew on here. Hopefully, another time.
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Billy
Bush Behind Bars
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What do you use for rib sauce and are y'all dry and sauce on the side or basted?

Dammit Billy, Bill is right, you are a pain in the ass in a nice way.
Now I have to go buy *another* book.
Crap, I have too much reading piled up on me as it is and nearly, it seems, too much stuff in my head to sort out.
Charlie
"A truly good book teaches me better than to read it. I must soon lay it down, and commence living on its hint. What I began by reading, I must finish by acting." ~~Henry David Thoreau
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Sometimes we'll marinate the ribs, and then baste with it during the cooking, other than that, we normally go "au naturel", because I don't want to block the flavor of the smoke, and sweetness kills the taste of a good dry wine.

kind of book. It talks about what is screwed up with the "western diet", and it starts with single ingredient "nutritionism". From there it heads on in to the simplifying or our diet (some 90% of our calories come from corn, soy, and wheat) and the diminishing nutrition and diversity of our food from meat (98% of turkeys are the same breed), to milk (holsteins produce triple what they did in 1950 with the attendant reduction of butter fat and other nutrients), to vegetables (new varieties grown for crop size and shelf life, resulting in less nutrition, which is exacerbated by chemical farming), and grains (yields have tripled in the last 130 years wit a 28% reduction in iron and 33% for zinc and selenium).
For the first time in history, according to Pollan, we have overfeed and undernourished people.
It is postulated, that on an unconscious level, our bodies over eat trying to compensate for the lack of nutrients in our food.

- Buddha + Dylan
Scab up an' move on. - Me

That is also the point of education. To learn to read the explicit text, and in doing so, understand its' implications in a manner that lets you be able to act on it.
Catch ya' later at the fence. Bring Bill too, ifn' he ain't too grouchy.
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Billy
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Found this over in rec.food.recipes. I like it when the weather is hot.
Bill
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Costillitas (Cuban Style Baby Back Ribs recipe)   courtesy of Cocina Cubana club/ Sonia Martinez/ Pascual Perez
6-8 lb lean baby back pork ribs 8 Cloves of garlic Juice of 3 large lemons 1/4 tsp. ground oregano 1 cup sour orange juice (Or 1 Cup of Orange Juice with the juice of 1 large lime ( I use 1/2 & 1/2 of each) 5 tsp of salt 2 teaspoon of olive oil
Cut the ribs in 5 to 7 inches sections. Wash well under faucet and dry thoroughly with paper towel. Smash the garlic cloves in a mortar or garlic press.
Mix the sour orange juice, lime juice, oregano, garlic, olive oil and 1/ 2 teaspoon of salt. Set aside about 1/2 cup of this mix ( the marinating sauce) to be used when serving. Place ribs in a large non-metal container and pour the rest of mix over the ribs. Rub the remaining salt thoroughly on all surfaces of the ribs. Place in the refrigerator and let stand for 2 to 3 hours.
Set you gas or charcoal grill to low and place ribs so that they are not exposed to direct flame. Cook slowly for about 30 - 45 minutes. Time will depend on the temperature of the your grill . (Cook very slowly to insure tenderness). Turn ribs once or twice while cooking. Once they are cooked, increase the heat to high or in the case of a charcoal grill place ribs over direct high charcoal heat in order to brown. Turn as needed to brown both sides well.
Serve with black beans and rice!
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Looks good, I'll try it without the salt (hypertension). It will be accompanied by grilled asparagus, baked fries, and a green salad. Red Wine: Nero di Avola, Sicily ($3.99)
Tomorrow is beer can chicken with grilled red bell pepper, celery root remoulade, baked fries, and green salad. Red Wine: Salice Salentino", Epicuro (D'Aquino), 2003, ($4.99)
Monday I think will be a quiche Lorraine, leftover celery root, and green salad. White Wine: Cuvιe de Michel Lιon, Vin de Alsace, Gewurztraminer, 2006, ($6.99)
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Billy
Bush Behind Bars
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On Sat, 24 May 2008 00:48:03 -0500, Charlie wrote:
[...]

I saw him on TV, giving a lengthy and interesting review on C-Span Book TV.
[...]
Persephone
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One of the ideas in Pollan's book that stuck. While FarmerΉs markets are desirable he pointed out that most folks need the super markets. He wrote that shopping there can be OK with a simple technique. "Shop as much as possible on the peripheral and stay out of the center." Seems most fresh and foods without ingredient labels reside along the edges.
Bill
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While looking about for Blackthorn Syrup which was not fruitful I found this site.
<http://www.sacredearth.com/ethnobotany/foraging/Sloe.php
Has sub areas dealing with foraging for wild vegetables and more.
<http://www.sacredearth.com/
Bill
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In article < snipped-for-privacy@sn-indi.vsrv-

20Medicine
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On Fri, 23 May 2008 23:24:01 -0500, Charlie wrote:
[...]

Does he turn green on the golf course? Or purple or red while walking the dog? Or black in his garage?
about the house. Cannot (read most likely...will

Ah, domestic bliss! Who knows...maybe he's good in the sack...
Aspasia
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