I have a large torch which contains 4 1.5 V batteries and when the torch
light faded and went out I checked the voltage in the 4 batteries and they
all read 1,4 V
It would appear that a drop of 0.1 V in each battery brings their life to
Is this correct?
No. I have a so-called battery tester which makes the same mistake.
What matters is not so much the voltage, as that will be adequate even
when the battery is almost dead, but the capacity to deliver current,
which depends on the chemical energy remaining to be converted
(strictly, the rate at which conversion can be maintained).
The two are related it's true, but the 'internal resistance' of the
battery is intentionally as low as possible so that maximum current
can be delivered to the external load. Consequently, a battery will
maintain voltage until almost all the chemical energy is gone, while
the current it supplies will weaken sooner.
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