19th/early c20th wall ties - UK


Does anybody have any idea if domestic terraced dwellings of c19th and early c20th were routinely provided with ties/anchorage between floor joists and walls parallel to them (i.e. restraint/tension strapping)?
My suspicion is that the principle of this sort of tie/anchorage only became established post 1950 in the UK, but I could be wrong...
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from end walls to parallel joists. Three in 20'. AS far as I could determine they were original. EDS
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In a previous post John wrote...

John:
I did a little research using my Kidder-Parker Architects' and Builders' Handbook (1936 Ed, but first copyright 1884).
I can find no reference to tieing the floor joist to masonry, but I did find a reference to tieing floor beams or girders to the masonry.
I going to guess that there are no ties between the wood and the masonry. Even if there was a bolt at mid-height of the joist, it would be loaded in cross-grain bending for loads perpendicular to the wall. This is a no-no and is not allowed under most modern building codes.
--
Bob Morrison, PE, SE
R L Morrison Engineering Co
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John wrote:

I believe the ties were only installed as a repair if the wall started to bulge/move. I'm not up on UK practices, now or then, but I know in the US that the ends of joists/beams were frequently cut at a bevel, commonly called a firecut, to allow a burned out floor to collapse without taking the masonry wall down with it. Cheaper and faster to rebuild that way. The ties would have made the firecuts useless.
R
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In a previous post RicodJour wrote...

Rico:
I noticed a note to that effect in Kidder & Parker. Good catch!
--
Bob Morrison, PE, SE
R L Morrison Engineering Co
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Bob Morrison wrote:

Thanks. I wasn't sure if your new version of Kidder Parker would have it. My copy is buried away somewhere. I should fish it out - makes great little office reading. ;)
R
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In a previous post RicodJour wrote...

I like that. :)
My "NEW" version is copyright 1931, but reprinted in 1936
--
Bob Morrison, PE, SE
R L Morrison Engineering Co
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John wrote:

I believe the ties were only installed as a repair if the wall started to bulge/move. I'm not up on UK practices, now or then, but I know in the US that the ends of joists/beams were frequently cut at a bevel, commonly called a firecut, to allow a burned out floor to collapse without taking the masonry wall down with it. Cheaper and faster to rebuild that way. The ties would have made the firecuts useless.
R
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The strapping you describe was not required by building codes in the UK until the mid 1970's. It was brought in more out of a series of building failures in the 60's and 70's than for any other reason. Changes in construction materials and methods meant that buildings were of "lighter weight" construction making connections more important in achieving stability.

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